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256 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The spinal cord is covered with _____.
Meninges
The protective tissue that surrounds the brain and spinal cord
Meninges
The meninges ____ the spinal cord and brain and helps the brain _____ in the cranium
Lubricates
Float
(via subarachnoid cererbrospinal fluid and fluid-filled ventricles)
The spaces between the layers of meninges contain _____ _____.
Cerebrospinal Fluid
(between the arachnoid and pia mater)
The 3 layers of Meninges from superficial to deep
Dura Mater
Arachnoid Mater
Pia Mater
The outermost layer of the meninges is
Dura Mater
The Dura Mater is ____ and offers protection to the _____ and _____ ____.
Fiberous
Brain
Spinal Cord
The middle layer of the meninges is the
Arachnoid Mater
The distinguishing physical characteristic of the Arachnoid Mater is that it is ____-_____.
Web-Like
The Arachnoid Mater of the Meninges is where _____ ____ flows through.
Cerebrospinal Fluid
(subarachnoid)
The innermost layer of the meninges is the
Pia Mater
The Pia Mater helps form the ___ _____.
Choroid Plexus
The Choroid Plexis is what makes ______ ______.
Cerebrospinal fluid
The trajectory of the spinal cord
Top of the 1st Cervical Vertebrae to the bottom of the 1st Lumbar Vertebrae
This is the butterfly-shaped substance at the center of the spinal cord
Gray Matter
The primary features of Gray Matter of the spinal cord
(TV is DuLl)
Transverse Commisure
Ventral Horn/Column (anterior)
Dorsal Horn/Column (posterior)
Lateral Horn/Column
The Ventral Horn is in the _____ of the ____ ____ of the spinal cord and contains the _____ nerve cells.
Anterior
Gray Matter
Motor (Efferent)
The Dorsal Horn is in the _____ of ____ ____ of the spinal cord and contains the _____ nerve cells.
Posterior
Gray Matter
Sensory
The Lateral Horns are on the ____ of the _____ _____ of the spinal cord and contain the ____ nerve cells.
Sides
Gray Matter
Autonomic
Grey matter extends the ____ ____ of the spinal cord
Full Length
In Spinal Cord, Gray Matter is _____ to White Matter
Deep
In the Spinal Cord, White Matter is _____ to Gray Matter
Superficial
The White Matter of the spinal cord is made of ______.
Funiculi (bundles of nerve fibers)
The 3 Funiculi of the White Matter of the Spinal Cord are
Ventral
Lateral
Dorsal
Each Funiculus contains (SAD)
Short Intersegmental Fibers
Ascending Fiber Tracts
Descending Fiber Tracts
The Ascending Fiber Tracts of the White Matter of the Spinal Cord transmit _____ and ______ information
Visceral
Proprioceptive (Sensory)
The Descending Fiber Tracts of the White Matter of the Spinal Cord transmit information from _____ ______ ____ out.
Higher Motor Centers
The Short Intersegmental Fibers of the White Matter of the Spinal Cord mediate ____ ___.
Reflexive Behavior
(Note: cannot find good backup data on this - only from lecture. can't find it anywhere else)
The PNS is defined as any neuron or nerve cell process located ______ the _____ and _____ ______.
Outside
Skull
Vertebral Column
There are ____ Cranial Nerves in the PNS.
12
Cranial nerves are named for ____, _____ or ______.
Structure
Function
Distribution
The types of Cranial Nerves are
Motor
Sensory
Mixed/Both
The two cranial nerves that DO NOT leave the cranium
I - Olfactory
II - Optic
Cranial Nerve I
Olfactory Nerve
CN I - Olfactory
Function:
Type:
Smell
Sensory
Cranial Nerve II
Optic
CN II - Optic
Function:
Type:
Vision
Sensory
Cranial Nerve III
Oculormotor
CN III - Oculormotor
Function:
Type:
- Visual convergence, pupil size, lens shape
- Motor
Which cranial nerve can be impacted by a Laryngectomy
CN I - Olfactory
"Stinky Old Factories Smell"
CN I - Olfactory
See/Move = 3
CN III - Oculormotor
Cranial Nerve IV
Trochlear
CN IV - Trochlear ("See Clear")
Function:
Type:
- Visual tracking (down/outward)
- Motor
"Track FOR clairty"
CN IV - Trochlear
Cranial Nerve V
Trigeminal
CN V - Trigemnial
Function:
Type:
- Sensations to facial regions & mastication control
- Motor and Sensory (Both)
"5 Golden Rings are Gems"
CN V - Trigeminal
Cranial Nerve VI
Abducens
CN VI - Abducens
Function:
Type:
- Lateral eye movement
- Motor
"6 Pack of Abs"
CN VI - Abducens
Cranial Nerve VII
Facial
CN VII - Facial
Function:
Type:
- Sensations of tongue & soft palate; facial expressions; taste
- Motor and Sensory (Both)
"Put on your lucky 7 game Face"
CN VII - Facial
Cranial Nerve VIII
Vestibulochlear (Acoustic)
CN VIII - Vestibulochlear (Acoustic)
Function:
Type:
- Hearing and Equilibrium
- Sensory
"The Vest is only an 8"
CN VIII - Vestibulochlear
Cranial Nerve IX
Glossopharyngeal
CN IX - Glossopharyngeal
Function:
Type:
- Swallowing, salivation, taste
- Motor and Sensory (both)
"9 Glossy pictures"
CN IX - Glossopharyngeal
Cranial Nerve X
Vagus
CN X - Vagus
Function:
Type:
- Sensations to/control of Pharynx, Larynx and Viscera
- Motor and Sensory (both)
"Nothing good happens in Vegas after 10pm"
CN X - Vagus
Cranial Nerve XI
Accessory
CN XI - Accessory
Function:
Type:
- Activate Sternocleidomastoid and Trapezius muscles
- Motor
"11 necklace Accessories are too many"
CN XI - Accessory
Cranial Nerve XII
Hypoglossal
CN XII - Hypoglossal
Function:
Type:
- Controls tongue movement
- Motor
"High Gloss"
CN XII - Hypoglossal
CN Name Mneumonic Device
"On old Olympus' towering top, a Finn and German viewed a hop"
- Olfactory
- Optic
- Oculormotor
- Trochlear
- Trigemnial
- Abducens
- Facial
- Acoustic (Vestibulochlear)
- Glossopharyngeal
- Vagus
- Accessory
- Hypoglossal
CN Type Mneumonic Device
"Some say Maryilyn Monroe, but my brother says Bridget Bardot. Mmmm Mmmmm.
- Sensory (Olfactory)
- Sensory (Optic)
- Motor (Ocularmotor)
- Motor (Trochlear)
- Both (Trigeminal)
- Motor (Abducens)
- Both (Facial)
- Sensory (Acoustic - Vestibuchochlear)
- Both (Glossopharyngeal)
- Both (Vagus)
- Motor (Accessory - Spinal)
- Motor (Hypoglossal)
The Ventral root of the spinal cord is the _____ portion and sends signals _____ ____ the brain.
Efferent
Away from
The Dorsal root of the spinal cord is the _____ portion and sends signals ______ the brain
Afferent
Toward
These combine to form a complete spinal nerve loop
The ventral (efferent) and dorsal (afferent) roots
The number of pairs of spinal nerves
31 Pairs
Breakdown the 31 pairs of spinal nerves
- Cervical (8)
- Thoracic (12)
- Lumbar (5)
- Sacral (5)
- Coccygeal (1)
Another name for the Autonomic Nervous System is the _____ ____ or _______ system
Visceral Efferent (away from CNS)
Involuntary (system)
The ANS supplies nerve impulses to the ____ ____ and _____ throughout the body
Smooth Muscles
Glands
The ANS is divided into _____ and ______ systems
Sympathetic
Parasympathetic
The Sympathetic division of the PNS is an _______ system
Excitatory
The Sympathetic System prepares the body for _______ by _______ its systems.
Emergencies/stress
Exciting
This is the antagonist to the Sympathetic division of the PNS
Parasympathetic
The Parasympathetic division of the PNS is an ______ system.
Inhibatory
The Parasympathetic system ___ ____ the body to ______ body resources and ______ internal activity
Slows Down
Conserve
Reduce
The parasympathetic division of the PNS is the anatagonist of the ______ _____.
Sympathetic Divsion
The most basic functional unit of the nerve is the ______.
Neuron
The 3 main part of the neuron are
(CAD)
Cell Body
Axon
Dendrites
The neuron's dendrites are _____ and move impulses ____ the cell body
Afferent
Toward
Dendrites are _____ off of the cell body
(Afferent) Extensions
The neuron has 1 ______ which is a longer extension than the _______
Axon
Dendrites
The Axon of the neuron is _____ and moves impulses _____ the cell body
Efferent
Away (from)
______ covers the nerve fiber of the axon.
Myelin
The myelin of the axon helps _____ and _____ it.
Protect
Insulate
The function of the Myelin of the axon is to aid in the
Transmission of electrical currents from one nerve cell to the next.
When a child is born, its neurons are not fully _______.
Mylenated
This builds up the myelin of the neurons
Practicing a skill over & over.
Practicing a skill builds myelin and therefore
Speeds of the transmission of data from one cell to the next (therefore speeding the process of the skill)
Full mylenation occurrs in
Late Childhood
A person who has MS has damage to the _______ of the ____ ____.
Myelin
Nerve Cell
Damage to myelin causes the _____ or ______ of certain skills.
Slowing
Loss
Three features of the Axon are
(MAN)
Myelin
Axon terminals
Nodes of Ranvier
These are the name for the gaps in the Myelin of the nerve cell
Nodes of Ranvier
The Nodes of Ranvier are the ____ where the nerve process is ______.
Junctions (in the Myelin)
Exposed
These increase the velocity of the nerve impulses
Nodes of Ranvier
These are the end points of the Axon
Axon Terminals
These are the 5 types of Neurons
(SAm BEA)
Somatic Neurons (voluntary control)
Autonomic Neurons (involuntary/visceral control)
Both (motor and sensory)
Efferant (Motor)
Afferent (Sensory)
Somatic Neurons are associated with _____ activity that is ______ in the _____.
Voluntary
Observable
Environment
Autonomic Nerons are associated with ______ activity of the ____, _____ ____ and ______.
Involuntary
Viscera
Blood Vessels
Glands
Activity in the Autonomic Neurons happens without ____ ____.
Conscious Thought
Efferent Neurons are ______ neurons that send impulses ______ the ___ ___ or ____.
Motor
Away (from)
Cell Body
CNS
Afferent Neurons are ______ neurons that send impulses ______ the ___ ____ or _____
Sensory
Toward
Cell Body
CNS
Motor Neurons are _____ Neurons
Efferent
Sensory Neurons are _____ Neurons
Afferent
Mixed neurons are both _____ and ______ and send information _____ and _____ the cell body or CNS.
Motor
Sensory
Toward
Away (from)
The name for the space between a chain of 3 or more neurons.
Synapse (Synaptic Cleft)
The end of the Axon Terminal is the ____ _____.
Synaptic Knob
The Synaptic Knob is filled with _____ ______ that carry ______.
Synaptic Vessicles
Neurotransmitters
Synaptic Vessicles release _____ through the synaptic knob's ______.
Neurotransmitters
Membrane
Vessicles pass through the synaptic knob's membrane into the ____ ___
Synaptic Cleft
Neurotransmitters pass through the membrane of the _____ ______ ____ (receiving neuron)
Post Synaptic Neuron
These join together to form a nerve
Bundles of axons and/or dendrites from a number of neurons.
Bundles of ______/______ from a number of neurons join together to form a ______.
Axons
Dendrites
Nerve
The 3 types of nerves are
Sensory (Afferent)
Motor (Efferent)
Mixed (Both Efferent and Afferent)
Sensory Nerves are _____ Nerves
Afferent
Sensory Nerves move information _____ the CNS.
Toward
Motor Nerves are ______ Nerves
Efferent
Motor Nerves move information _____ the CNS.
Away (from)
Mixed nerves are ____ and _____.
Efferent (Motor)
Afferent (Sensory)
The Cerebral Cortex is responsible for
(TV LRP)
- Thought
- Voluntary movement
- Language
- Reasoning
- Perception
The Cerebellum is responsible for
(BPM)
- Balance
- Posture
- Movement
The Brain Stem is responsible for
(BHB)
- Breathing
- Heart Rate
- Blood Pressure
The Hypothalmus is respoinsible for
(HE BC)
- Hunger & Thirst
- Emotions
- Body Temperature
- Cicadian Rhythms
The Thalmus is responsible for
(SI MI)
- Sensory Integration
- Motor Integration
The Central Nervous System is made up of the
Brain and Spinal Cord
The Brain is divided up into the
- Hindbrain (Rhombencephalon)
- Midbrain (Mesencephalon)
- Forebrain (Prosencephalon)
Another name for the Hindbrain is
Rhombencephalon
Another name for the Midbrain is
Mesencephalon
Another name for the Forebrain is the
Prosencephalon
Another name for the hindbrain is the
Rhombencephalon
The Hindbrain (Rhombencephalon) is made up of the _____ and the ______.
- Metencephalon (Cerebellum and Pons)
- Mylencephalon (Medula Oblongotta)
Another name for the Mylencephalon is the
Medula Oblongotta
Another name for the Medula Oblongotta is the
Mylencephalon
The Metencephalon is made up of the
Cerebellum
Pons
The Cerebellum and Pons make up the
Metencephalon (part of the Hindbrain)
The Cerebellum is also known as the ____ ___ and is located at the ______.
Little Brain
Posterior
The Cerebellum is responsible for regulation of _____ ____, ____ and _____
Limb Movement
Balance
Posture
The White Matter of the brain is made mostly of _____ _____.
Mylenated Axons
The White Matter of the brain is _____ in color
Pinkish
The Pons is part of the _______ that acts as a _____ between the lobes of the ______.
Metencephalon
Bridge
Cerebellum
The Pons connects the Cerebellum with the ____ and ____ ____.
Cerebrum
Spinal Cord
This is where the spinal cord merges into the brain
Medula Oblongotta (Mylencephalon)
The brain stem is made up of
(DM PM)
Diencephalon
Mesencepahlon
Pons
Medulla Oblongotta
What is connected to the brain stem but not considered part of it?
Cerebellum
What is another name for the Midbrain?
Mesencephalon
The function of the Midbrain (Mesencephaalon) is to connect the _____ and the _____.
Forebrain (Prosencephalon)
Hindbrain (Rhombencephalon)
The Mesencephalon (aka the _____) aids in the ______ and _______ of movements
Midbrain
Regulation
Coordination
The Forebrain is also known as the
Prosencephalon
The Forebrain consists of the
Diencephalon (Thalmus & Hypothalmus)
Telencephalon (Cerebrum)
The Diencephalon is part of the ______ and is made up of the ____ and _____.
Forebrain (Proencephalon)
Thalmus
Hypothalmus
The Thalmus (part of the _____) is the _____ and _____ center for ______ information
Diencephalon (of the Forebrain)
Relay
Integration
Sensory
The Hyopthalmus (part of the _____) controls _____ activities, _____ balance, ______, ______ and ______ functions
(VWTSM)
(Diencephalon)
Visceral
Water (balance)
Temperature
Sleep
Metabolic
The Telencephalon is made up of the
Cerebrum
Another name for the Cerebrum is the
Telencephalon
The _____ is the largest part of the human brain
Cerebrum
The Cerebrum has two _____ divided by a _____ ____.
Hemispheres
Longitudinal Fissure
The White Matter of the Cerebrum lies ______ or under the _____ ____.
Subcortical
Cerebral Cortex (gray matter)
White Matter of the _____ is made up of 3 kinds of fibers
(PAC)
Brain
Projection
Association
Commisural
The three kinds of fibers in White Matter of the Cerebrum
Projection Fibers
Association Fibers
Commisural Fibers
Are Projection Fibers afferent or efferent?
BOTH!
They send impluses to and from the cerebral cortex
Association Fibers interconnect _____ regions in the same hemisphere
Cortical
Association Fibers are made of ____ and _____ fibers
Long
Short
The Short Fibers in the ______ Fibers of the White Matter connect _____ in adjacent ______.
Association
Cells
Convolutions
The Long Fibers in the _____ Fibers of the White Matter connect _____ ____ in the _____ hemisphere. (Give Example)
Association
Cortical Regions
Same
Ex: ARCUATE FASCICULUS connects Wernicke's to Broca's Area
The Arcuate Fasciculus is a _____ Fiber
Long (association)
These fibers connect cortical regions in the SAME hemisphere
Long Fibers
(Association)
Give an example of an important Long Fiber and what it connects
Arcuate Fasciculus
Connects Wernicke's to Broca's Area
Commisural Fibers connect _____ ____ of the _______ hemispheres.
Corresponding Regions
Two
What is the main commisural fiber?
Corpus Collosum
The Corpus Collosum is a ____ fiber that connects the 2 hemispheres of the _____.
Commisural
Cerebrum
Cutting the Corpus Collosum is used as a treatment for severe ______.
Epilepsy
If someone with a severed Corpus Collosum touches something (unseen) with his Left hand, what happens?
He cannot name the object because the signal sent to the right side of the brain cannot pass to the language center on the left.
This separates the frontal & parietal lobes
Central Sulcus
The bumpy surface of the hemisperes of the cerebrum are called
Gyri
The Gyri are the _____ surface of the cerebrum.
Bumpy
The depressions/convolutions down into the cerebrum are called
Sulci
The Sulci are the _______ on the surface of the cerebrum
Depressions
The ____ ____ are the masses of gray matter in the cerebrum.
Basal Ganglia
Two major functions of the Basal Ganglia are:
- Regulation of complex motor functions
- Inhibition
The complex motor functions that the ____ ____ regulate include
Basal Ganglia
Posture
Locomotion
Balance
The inhibitory functions of the Basal Ganglina include
Decrease in muscle tone
Coordination of muscle behavior between groups
A lesion on the Basal Ganglia can result in stiffness, AKA
Hypertonia/Rigidity
A lesion on the Basal Ganglia can result in a shaking movement known as
Resting Tremmors (shaking at rest. Stops with volitional movement)
A lesion on the Basal Ganglia can result in a mask-face and shuffle walk AKA
Parkinsoniums
A lesion on the Basal Ganglia can result in flailing movments of the body AKA
Bellisimus
A lesion on the Basal Ganglia can result in impacted motor control, including
the motor function of speech
The Lobes of the Cerebrum
Frontal
Parietal
Temporal
Occipital
Two important features of the Frontal Lobe of the ______ are
Cerebrum
Primary Motor Strip (located on the Precentral Gyrus)
Broca's Area (Paul Broca)
Another name for the Primary Motor Strip
Primary Motor Cortex
The Primary Motor Strip (Cortex) is part of the
Precentral Gyrus (of the Frotal Lobe)
The Primary Motor Strip provides a common motor ____ to the _____ ___.
Pathway
Skeletal Muscles
The Primary Motor Strip is located in the ____ Lobe of the ______.
Frontal
Cerebrum
(on the precentral gyrus)
Broca's Area is located in the ____ Lobe of the _____.
Frontal
Cerebrum
Broca's Area is located on the Frontal Lobe in the ____ _____ ____ Gyrus
Left Inferior Frontal
The Left Inferior Frontal Gyrus of the Frontal Lobe of the Cerebrum is the location of
Broca's Area
Broca's Area is responsible for the
MOTOR movements of speech
Is Broca's Area on both the Left and Right Hemispheres of the Frontal Lobe of the Cerebrum?
NO.
Only on the Left.
Lesions on Broca's Area can lead to
Aphasia
Damage to Broca's Area can lead to
Apraxia
(commentary from me: not necessarily congenital, but acquired)
When damage occurs to Broca's Area, what happens to receptive language?
It is often left intact (since Broca's is a motor SPEECH center, not a language center)
Strict Product Liability:
Defenses:
AZ will apportion fault under comparative negligence rules in strict liability and products liability actions, including Assumption of the Risk.
The Primary Sensory Strip is part of the ____ Lobe of the ______.
Parietal
Cerebrum
"Parietal = Primary Sense"
Parietal Lobe of the Cerebrum contains the Primary Sensory Strip
"Put your Motor in the Front"
Frontal Lobe of the Cerebrum contains the Primary Motor Strip (Cortex)
The Primary Sensory Strip on the _____ lobe receives the sensations from the ______ side of the body
Cerebrum (Parietal Lobe)
Opposite
The Left Angular Gyrus is located in the ____ lobe and is associated with ____ _____.
Parietal
Written Comprehension
Damage to this part of the Parietal Lobe can cause alexia, dyslexia and/or agraphia
Left Angular Gyrus
Damage to the Left Angular Gyrus can cause problems with
Reading and Writing
Alexia (word blindness), Dyslexia, Agraphia (writing impairment)
The Temporal Lobe is located in the ______.
Cerebrum
Two important areas of the Temporal Lobe of the Cerebrum are
- Cortical Center for Hearing
- Wernicke's Area
The Cortical Center for Hearing is part of the _____ Lobe of the _______ and help us ____ and ______ sounds
Temporal
Cerebrum
Hear
Understand
Sound passes from the outside thru the ____ ____ of the Temporal Bone to the _____ ___ ____ _____ in the Temporal Lobe.
Auditory Ossicles
Cortical Center for Hearing
Wernicke's Area is located in the ____ lobe of the _____ and is responsible for the integration of ____ and _____ stimuli.
Temporal (and part of the Parietal)
Cerebrum
Auditory
Visual
Wernicke's Area is implicated in the creation of ____ ____ ____.
Logical Spoken Language
Damage to Wernicke's area can result in difficulty in the _____ and ______ of _____ languge
Understanding
Creation
Spoken
Will a person with damage to Wernicke's Area have intelligible speech?
YES.
But they will have unintelligible/nonsensical LANGUAGE
What does Wernicke's Area communicate with to help translate language ideas into spoken language?
Broca's Area (the [presumed] motor speech center of the brain)
How does Wernicke's Area communicate with Broca's Area
Via the Arcuate Fasciculus (long associateion fiber)
The Occipital Lobe is part of the _____.
Cerebrum
This is the seat of the primary visual and visual association functions of the brain
The Occipital Lobe of the Cerebrum
The Occipital Lobe of the Cerebrum is where the _____ ____ and ____ ____ areas are located
Primary Vision
Visual Association
The Hemispheres of the Cerebrum are responsible for ____ and ____ control
Motor
Sensory
The Left Hemisphere of the Cerebrum is associated with
(LHMA)
Language
Handedness
Mathmatical Calculations
Analytical Thought
The Right Hemisphere of the Cerebrum is associated with
(CAM)
Creativity
Art
Music
When one hemisphere of the cerebrum is damaged, the other side can funtion as _____.
Backup
When is damage to the brain most able to be compensated for?
In a young child whose myelin is still forming.
Where is cerebrospinal fluid located?
In the entire Central Nervous System (brain and spinal cord)
What is the purpose of cerebrospinal fluid (B PEE)
Buoyency
Protection
Excretion of waste products
Endochrine System function (transports hormones)
Cerebrospinal fluid occupies the space between the _____ mater and the ____ mater around the brain and spinal cord.
Arachnoid
Pia
The in brain, there are 4 cavities called ______ that are filled with _____ ____.
Ventricles
Cerebrospinal Fluid
The 4 Ventricles of the brain that contain Cerebrospinal Fluid are
Lateral (2)
3rd Ventricle (middle)
4th Ventrical (bottom/central)
How many Lateral Ventricles are in the brain & what is inside?
Two
Cerebrospinal Fluid
Where is the 3rd ventricle located & what does it contain?
Middle of the brain
Cerebrospinal Fluid
Where is the 4th ventricle located & what does it contain?
Bottom/Medial portion of the brain
Cerebrospinal Fluid
What produces 40-50% of the Cerebrospinal Fluid in the body
Choroid Plexus
The Choriod Plexus is found in the ____ of the _____ where the ____ mater of the meninges meets with the _____.
Ventricles
Brain
Pia
Ventricles
A buildup of fluid in the ventricles of the brain is called
Hydrocephalus
How is a hydrocephalic brain drained of excess fluid?
A shunt to the jugular
The cortex of the cerebrum and cerebellum is made of
Gray Matter
___ _____ of the cerebrum and cerebellum is deep to Gray Matter
White Matter
What gives the brain its pinkish color
Pia Mater (highly vascular)
Lesions to the Basal Ganglia can result in a condition of slow, involuntary movements, especially of the fingers and writsts known as
Athetosis
Chorea is caused by lesions in the ____ ____ and is characterized by ____, ______ movements
Basal Ganglia
Sudden
Purposeless
Hembiallismus is caused by lesions to the _____ ____ and cause movements on
Basal Ganglia
One side of the body
These form the Myelin in the CNS
Oligodendrocytes
These form Myelin in the PNS
Schwann Cells
How big is a synaptic cleft?
.01 microns