Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/58

Click to flip

58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
coma
a state of unresponsiveness in which an individual cannot be aroused by verbal, physical, or powerful pain stimuli
5 levels of acute coma
confusion, disorentation, lethargy, obtundation, stupor, coma
confusion
loss of ability to think rapidly and clearly; impaired judgment and decision making
disorentation
beginning loss of consciousness; disorentation to time followed by disorentation to place and impaired memory; lost last is recognition of self
lethargy
limited spontaneous movement or speech; easy arousal with normal speech or touch; may not be oriented to time, place, or person
obtundation
mild to moderate reduction in arousal with limited response to the environment; falls asleep unless stimulated verbally or tactiley; answers questions with minimum response
stupor
a condition of deep sleep or unresponsiveness from which the person may be aroused or caused to open eyes only by vigorous and repeated stimulation; response is often withdrawal or grabbing at stimulus
no verbal response to the external environment or to any stimuli; noxious stimuli such as deep pain or suctioning yield motor movement
coma
there are 3 types of coma
light coma, coma, deep coma
light coma/type 1
associated with purposeful movement on stimulation
coma/type 2
associated with nonpurposeful movement only on stimulation
deep coma/type 3
associated with unresponsiveness or no response to any stimulus
5 areas of assessment of coma
level of consciousness, pattern of breathing, papillary changes, oculomotor responses, motor responses
2 types of patterns of breathing
hemispheric and brain stem
3 types of hemispheric breathing patterns
normal, posthyperventilation apnea, cheyne-stokes respirations
5 types of brain stem breathing patterns
central reflex hyperapnea, apneusis, cluster breathing, ataxic breathing, gasping breathing pattern (agonal gasps)
normal hemishperic breathing pattern
after a period of hyperventilation that lowers the arterial carbon dioxide pressure, the individual continues to breath regularly but with a reduced depth
posthyperventilation apnea (PHVA) hemispheric breathing pattern
respirations stop after hyperventilation has lowered the arterial carbon dioxide pressure level below normal. Rhythmic breathing returns when the PCO2 level returns to normal
cheyen-stokes respirations (CSR) hemispheric breathing pattern
the breathing pattern has a smooth increase in the rate and depth of breathing, which peaks and is followed by a gradual smooth decrease in the rate and depth of breathing to the point of apnea when the cycle repeats itself; the hyperpenic phase lasts longer than the apenic phase
central reflex hyperpnea (central neurogenic hyperventilation [CNH]) brain stem breathing pattern
a sustained deep rapid, but regular pattern (hyperpnea) occurs, with a decreased PCO2 and a corresponding increase in pH and increased PO2.
apneusis brain stem breathing pattern
a prolonged inspiratory cramp (a phase a full inspiration) occurs. A common variant of this is a brief end-inspiratory pause of 2 or 3 seconds, often alternating with an end-expiratory pause
cluster breathing brain stem breathing pattern
a cluster of breaths has a disordered sequence with irregular pauses between breaths
ataxic breathing brain stem breathing pattern
completely irregular breathing occurs, with random shallow and deep breaths and irregular pauses. often the rate is slow
gasping brain stem breathing pattern (agonal gasps)
a pattern of deep "all-or-none" breaths accompanied by a slow respiratory rate
treatment of coma
treat cause, positioning, nutritional, prevent foot drop, support family
causes of coma
internal and external hypoxia, vascular hemmorage, hypoglycemia
Brain death (brain stem death)
death of hindbrain and area that controls pulse, respiration, autonomic nervous responses
cerebral death (irreversible coma)
death of gray matter
brain stem death is
measurable
in brain stem death you may or may not have
cerebral death, but usually do
brain and cerebral death are diagnosed by
EEG
in cerebral death there
is brain activity
in brain death there is
no brain activity
vegetative state (VS)
a physical condition in which a previously comatose patient continues to be unable to communicate or respond to stimuli, despite at times giving the appearance of wakefulness. the eyes may be open
minimally conscious state(MCS)
a condition of severely altered consciousness in which the person demonstrates minimal but defined behavioral evidence of self or environmental awareness
lock-in syndrome
both the content of thought and level of arousal are intact, but the efferent pathways are disrupted, thus the individual cannot communicate either through speech or body movement but is fully conscious, with intact cognitive function
seizures
a sudden explosive, disorderly discharge of cerebral neurons and is characterized by a sudden, transient alteration in brain function, usually involving motor, sensory, autonomic, or physic clinical manifestations and an alteration in arousal
epilepsy
a general term for the primary condition that causes seizures
in 2/3 of seizures
the cause or etiology is unknown
data processing deficits
agnosia, dysphasia, aphasia
agnosia has three categories
tactile, spatial, agraphia
agnosia
a defect of pattern recognition--a failure to recognize the form and nature of objects
the disorder of agnosia involves
the loss of recognition through one sense, although the object or person may be recognized by other senses
tactile agnosia
cannot determine what is what
spatial agnosia
cannot say what used for and why it's there
agraphia agnosia
inability to write
dysphasia
an impairment of comprehension or production of language. comprehension or use of symbols, in either written or verbal language, is distrubed or lost
aphasia
loss of the comprehension or production of language
states of confusion
delirum (acute), dementia (chronic)
acute confusional states
an aquired mental disorder characterizzed by deficits in attention and coherence of thoughts and actions often associated with an altered level of arousal, global cognitive dysfunction, perceptual disturbances, sleep-awake cycle disruption, affective disturbance, and emotional liability
delirum
is associated with right middle temporal gyrus or left temporal-occipital junction disruption. these areas recieve extensive input from the limbic areas and modulate motivational and affective aspects of attention
dementia
progressive failure of many cerebral functions that is not caused by an impaired level of consciousness.
the dementias are characterized by
reduction in cognitive functions (intellectual)
in dementia
mental abilities are impaired, with a decrease in orienting, recent memory, remote memory, language, executive attentional functions, and alterations in behavior
normal intracranial pressure
5-15 mm Hg or 60-180 cm H2O
diseases/disorders that can affect ICP
herniation, hemorrhagic stroke, tumor, hematoma, hydocephalus, cerebral edema
hypotonia
decreased muscle tone
hypertonia
increased muscle tone