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157 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Why its important to define communication?
Diversity of Perspectives
Complexity of phenomena
Purpose of defining
What does the Palo Alto team say?
A person cannot “not communicate”
Issues in defining communication
Intentional
Successful
Effective
Correspondence
Symbolic actions
Cognition, thought, perception
Human to Human
5 key terms in defining communication
Social
Process
Symbolic
Meaning
Environment
Social
The notion that people and interactions are part of the communication process
Process
Ongoing, dynamic, and unending occurrence
Symbolic
Arbitrary label given to a phenomenon
Meaning
Symbols and ideas have multiple meanings
Environment
Situation or context in which a situation occurs
Concrete symbols
Represent objects
Abstract symbols
Represent ideas or thoughts
West and Turners Definition of Communication
A process in which individuals use symbols to establish and interpret meaning in their environment
What is ethics?
The perceived rightness or wrongness of an action. Determining whats right or wrong is influenced by a society with its rules and laws.
Ethical strategies to consider when reading comm theory
Remain open to being persuaded by others
Remain willing to try out new ideas
Accept multiple perspectives on reality are held by different people
Test any held knowledge
Live with ambiguity
Become less tolerant of contradiction
Evaluate claims against personal experience
Models of communication
Linear
Interactional
Transactional
Linear model of communication
Sender encodes a message, receiver decodes message
Interactional model of communication
Sender encodes and sends, receiver decodes. Receiver encodes feedback, sends, and sender decodes feedback.
Transactional Model of communication
Participants constantly send, decode, and respond. Is a mechanistic model
Types of noise
Physical (external)
Psychological – thoughts/emotions of receiver
Physiological – “im hungry or tired”
Semantic – components of message
Contexts of communication
Intrapersonal
Interpersonal
Family
Small Group
Organizational
Public/Rhetorical
Mass
Intercultural
Health
Intrapersonal Communication
Role of cognition
Decision Making
Attributions about others
Attributions about self
Persuasion
Interpersonal Communication
Relationship development
Relationship maintenance
Relationship dissolution
Power and Control
Attraction
Conflict
Family communication
Marital communication
Parent/child communication
Sibling communication
Work/home issues
Childcare issues
Political – caring for aged parents
Small Group communication
Problem solving
Leadership
Communication networks
Power
Norms
Organizational communication
Culture
Power
Morale
Worker satisfaction
Hierarchy
Productivity
Constitution of organization
Public comm: Rhetoric
Aristotle (Ethos, Pathos, Legos)
Speech and text criticism
Communication apprehension
Mass communication
Effects on culture
Ethics
Uses and gratifications
Diffusion
Digital Device
Intercultural communication
Between/among cultures
Co-cultures
How culture/comm impact each other
Gender
Race
Class
Health Communication
Interpersonal
Public Health
Diffusion
Networks
What is field of experience?
Overlap mof sender's and receiver's culture, experience, heredity in communication
West and Turners definition of theory
An abstract system of concepts and their relationships that help us to understnad a phenomenon
Stephen Littlejohns definition of theory
Any conceptual representation or explanation of a phenomenon
Mary John Smiths definition of theory
A set of statments specifying an explanatory relationship between two or more classes of phenomenon
Two key parts of theory?
Concepts and relationships
What are concepts?
Words or terms for the most important elements in a theory
What are nominal concepts?
Those that are not directly observable, such as love
What are real concepts?
Those that are observable, such as spacial distance
What are relationships?
Specify ways in which the concepts in a theory are combined
What is a taxonomy?
A conceptual representation of categories of a phenomenon
Descriptive
What is a model?
A simplified representation of reality
Relationships between concepts
Temporal order
Descriptive
Class definition of theory?
Any conceptual representation or explanation of a phenomenon
Knapps Model of relationship development
Coming together (Initiating, experimenting, intensifying, integrating, bonding)
Coming apart (Differentiating, circumscribing)
Goals of theory
Describe, explain, predict, control
What is communication theory?
A way to describe, explain, predict, and/or change human communication behavior
What is metatheory?
Body of speculation on the nature of theory and research
3 Metatheoretical Assumptions?
Ontological, Epistemological, Axiological
Metatheoretical questions?
What comm behaviors should be observed?
How should they be observed?
What should be the goals of theory/research?
What is ontology?
Studies the nature of reality
Study of being and non-being
Derived from Greek, meaning beings
Impossible to philosophize until nature of reality is determined
Ontological questions/assumptions
Do humans make real choices? (sci-no, hum-yes)
Are humans mostly alike or mostly unique? (sci-alike, hum-unique)
Is human behavior predictable? (sci-yes, hum-no)
What is eplistemology?
Studies knowledge
Addresses questions about how we know things and how we go about knowing the things we know
What is objectivist epistemology?
It is possible to explain the world
What is subjectivist epistemology?
The social world is relativistic
Epistemological questions/assumptions
Is knowledge objective or subjective? (sci-obj, hum-sub)
Can knowledge exist before experience? (sci-yes, hum-no)
Can knowledge be certain? (sci-yes, hum-no)
By what process does knowledge arise? (sci-disc., hum-creation)
What is axiology?
Studies values
Axiological questions/assumptions
Research value free? (sci-yes, hum-no)
Does the practice of inquiry influence that which is studied? (sci-no, hum-yes)
Should research attempt to achieve social change? (sci-no, hum-yes)
Scientific vs. Humanistic - knowledge?
Scientific - objective knowledge
Humanistic - some knowledge is subjective
Scientific vs. Humanistic - focus?
Scientific - search for regularity
Humanistic - focus on individuals and how they create meaning
Scientific vs. Humanistic - how they research?
Scientific - systematic observation
Humanistic - non-standardized methods
Scientific vs. Humanistic - how is knowledge gained?
Scientific - through emperical means
Humanistic - introspection/interpretation
Scientific vs. Humanistic - Goals?
Scientific - explanation, prediction, and control
Humanistic - understanding and social change
Laws to Rhetoricians?
Scientific to Humanistic

Laws...systems...rules...rhetoricians
Laws approach
no choice
people comm. the way they do becuase some prior condition caused them to respond that way
comm. is governed by forces that are predictable/generalizable
Forces are called laws
If X, then Y
Universal
Positivistic Laws
Deterministic
X causes Y
Probabilistic Laws
Based on probability
If X, then Y under certain condition Z
Law-like
Rules approach
choice
People make choices about their actions to achieve goals
Goals achieved by following social rules for decisions
Context specific
Rules theorists want to understand..
what the rules are
why people follow/not follow rules and effects of that
how people create rules
Systems approach
Human behavior part of system
Free will constrained by system in which they operate
Properties of systems
Wholeness
Interdependence
Hierarchy
Boundaries/Openness
Calibration/Feedback
Equifinality
Rhetoricians & Critics
Interpretive or Hermeneutic approach
Critial approach
Humans act upon world symbolically
Actions are meaningful in themselves
Interpretation of meaning is necessary for understanding human comm
Laws to Rhetoricians?
Scientific to Humanistic

Laws...systems...rules...rhetoricians
Laws approach
no choice
people comm. the way they do becuase some prior condition caused them to respond that way
comm. is governed by forces that are predictable/generalizable
Forces are called laws
If X, then Y
Universal
Positivistic Laws
Deterministic
X causes Y
Probabilistic Laws
Based on probability
If X, then Y under certain condition Z
Law-like
Rules approach
choice
People make choices about their actions to achieve goals
Goals achieved by following social rules for decisions
Context specific
Rules theorists want to understand..
what the rules are
why people follow/not follow rules and effects of that
how people create rules
Systems approach
Human behavior part of system
Free will constrained by system in which they operate
Properties of systems
Wholeness
Interdependence
Hierarchy
Boundaries/Openness
Calibration/Feedback
Equifinality
Rhetoricians & Critics
Interpretive or Hermeneutic approach
Critial approach
Humans act upon world symbolically
Actions are meaningful in themselves
Interpretation of meaning is necessary for understanding human comm
Planning Phase
Conclusion sentence, 3 steps: support for the conclusion
introduction sentence
Presentation Phase
Introduction sentence, 3 steps:evidence leading up to conclusion, conclusion sentence
Row argument
1-3-1
Chain argument
1-1-1-1-1
Dialectual argument
1-2-1-1
3 stage model of communication inquiry
stage 1: observing comm phenomena
stage 2: Discovering theoretical explanations
stage 3: test theoretical explanations
Building blocks of theory
concepts
explanations (relationships)
Conceptualization
Group similar concrete events into categories
Label concepts
define concepts
Explanation
identifies relationships among concepts
Answers "why?" or "how?"
Relies on principle of necessity
Principle of necessity
Designates a logical force among concepts that makes a particular outcome necessary
3 types of necessity
Causal, practical, logicalq
Causal necessity
explains in terms of cause/effect
Laws theories depend on causal necessity
Practical necessity
explains events in terms of acts and consequences
Behavior seen as intentional action designed to achieve goals
Rules theorists depend on practical necessityq
Logical necessity
theories are elaborate explanatory frameworks linked by logic
consistency
All theories must have logical necessity
How to build theory
Observe phenomenon, develip explanation for phenomenon, test your explanation, refine & modify & change your theory
Quantitative approach to test theory
Conceptualization followed by operationalization
independent and dependent variable (indep. = cause/antecedent, dep. = effect/consequent)
Qualitative approach to test theory
Ethnography-writing culture
Hands on observation
Textual analysis
Scope
what does it explain
Precision
how precise
Logical consistency
is the argument consistent?
Testable
Can you measure those concepts?
Heuristic value
does it make me more curious?
Organizing value
does it help us understand previous theories?
Validity
Utility - find this useful?
Correspondence of Fit - does it correspond with initial observation?
Parsimony
Is it simple enough to be elegant?
Applied research
research to solve a problem or create a policy
code
converting raw data to a catagory system
content analysis
a technique for textual analysis involving coding units into finite categories
control
the researchers abiliuty to direct the important concepts in the research process
critical approach
an approach stressing the researchers responsibility to change the inequities in the status quo
depth interviews
semistructured or instructured interviews lasting at least one hour aimed at collecting rich descriptions from respondents
ethnography
a specific research method where researchers immerse themselves in participants lives, aiming to describe people's culturally distinct patterns of communication
Grounded theory
theory induced from data collection and analysis in a study
inductive logic
moving from the specific to the general
interpretive (hermenuetic) approach
an approach viewing truth as subjective and stressing the participation of the researcher in the research process
operationalize
making an abstract concept measurable and observable
positivistic (empirical) approach
an approach assuming the existence of objective reality and value-neutral research
Pure research
research to generate knowledge
survey research
a specific research method asking participants to respond to written questionnaires
triangulation
an approach to research involving multiple methods
Unit of analysis
the specific object of study, may be an individual, a family, an organization, and so forth
validity
the truth value of an observation
calibration
property of systems theory that stataes systems periodically check the scale of allowable behaviors and reset the system
equifinality
property of systems theory stating that systems can achieve the same goals through different means
grand theory
theory that attempts to explain all of a phenomenon such as communication
habitual rules
rules that are set by an authority and are nonnegotiable
heurism
a criterion for evaluating theories, refers to the amount of research and new thinking stimulated by the theory
homeostatic
a term for stable systems
interdependence
a property of systems theory stating that the elements of a system are interrelated
mid-range theory
theory that attempts to explain a specified aspect of a phenomenon such as communication
morphogenic
a term for changing systems
narrow theory
theory that attempts to explain a very limited aspect of a phenomenon such as communication
openness
acknowledgment that within all human systems the boundaries constructed are more or less permeable
parametric rules
rules that are set by an authority but are negotiable
parsimony
a criterion for evaluating theories, refers to the simplicity of the explanation provided by the theory
scope
a criterion for evaluating theories, refers to the breadth of communication behaviors covered in the theory
subsystems
lower levels of a system
suprasystems
higher levels of a system
tactical rules
unstated rules used to achieve a personal or interpersonal objective
test of time
a criterion for evaluating theories, refers to the theory's durability over time
utility
a criterion for evaluating theories, refers to the theory's usefulness or practical value
wholeness
a fundamental property of systems theory stating that systems are more than the sum of their individual parts
co-cultures
cultural groups that are part of the larger (national) culture
cohesive
sense of togetherness in a group
communication apprehension
fear of speaking before an audience
Hawthorne experiments
research studies that found workplace productivity increased when changes in environment occurred
lifespace
group member's psychological environment
mass communication
communication to a large audience via mass media
mass media
channels or delivery modes for mass messages
new media
electrinic media such as the internet, e-mail, and digital cable
organizational communication
communication within and among large, extended environments
public communication
dissemination of information from one person to a large group
roles
positions of group members and their relationship to the group
self-esteem
the positive orientation a person has of himself or herself
situational contexts
environments limited by a number of issues, including people, space, and feedback
synergy
process that allows for multiple perspectives to be given on issues or events
Field of experience
overlap of senders and receivers culture, experiences, and heredity of communication
Process
ongoing, dynamic, and unending occurrence
Social
the notion that people and interactions are part of the communication process