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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a definition of sound?
an audible disturbance of a medium produced by a source. refers to human hearing. there are sounds that humans cannot hear, but some animals can hear them. There are sounds that no biological organism can hear. sounds exist even if they are not heard.
describe intensity of sound and loudness and how this is measured.
intensity of sound is related to amplitude, which is the extent of molecular displacement. the greater the molecular displacement the higher the amplitude and intensity. Loudness is a sensation related to the physical intensity of a sound. the higher the the louder the sound is perceived. the decibel is used to measure intensity.
describe the outer ear.
Made of the auricle of pinna which funnels sound to the ear canal and helps localize sounds. the external auditory canal (meatus) acts as a resonator of sound it recieves. The ear canal has a cerumen (wax) to trap insects and filter dust.
describe the middle ear.
The middle ear is filled with air and is seperated from the outer ear by the eardrum or tympatic membrane. vibrations of the eardrum set the ossicular chain in motion. the ossicular chain consists of the malleus which is embedded in the eardrum and attached to the incus. the incus is attached to the stapes which inserts into the oval window leading to the inner ear. The ossicular chain transmits sound efficiently without distortion. amplifies sound by 30 dB before transmitting it to the fluids of the inner ear.
describe the inner ear.
begins with the oval window. throught the stapes the inner ear receives the vibrations of sound. the inner ear has two structures: the vestibular system which is concerned w/ balance, body position, and movement. and the cochlea which is concerned with hearing.
describe the process in hearing a sound.
The auricle of pinna funnels the sound into the ear cannel. The air of the middle ear conducts the vibrations to the eardrum which sets the ossicular chain in motion. The stapes transfers the vibrations to the fluid in the inner ear. The sound reaches the cochlea as a disturbance of the inner ear fluid causing the basilar membrane to vibrate. In the organ of Corti, the vibrations are transformed into electrical impulses which are carried to the brain by the acoustic or auditory nerve.
describe the auditory ability of a newborn.
newborns respond differnetly to sounds of different pitch and loudness. An infant is quiet with low frequency sounds and active with high frequency sounds. They do respond to speech sounds.
Describe a conductive hearing loss, including causes.
conductive hearing loss is a problem with sound conduction to the middler or inner ear. It is never profound. A common cause is otitus media (middle ear infection). Another cause might be otosclerosis which is a disease of the bones of the middle ear, especially the stapes.
Describe sensorineural hearing loss, including causes.
Sensorineural hearing loss occurs when hair cells in the cochlea are damaged preventing the brain from recieving the neural impulses of sound. It is a permanent mild to profound loss. There is a greater loss for higher frequencies. It may have an affect on acquistion of speech and language. Causes include: ototoxic drugs during pregnancy, noise, infections, rubella, birth defects, anoxia, acoustic neuroma, old age, meniere's disease.
describe how hearing is tested
A screening is first performed to determine if further testing is needed. If it is, an audiologist will use an audiometer to test the hearing of a client. The audiometer generates and amplifies pure tones. Testing is usually done in a sound proof booth. Testing occurs at 1000 Hz, 2000Hz, 4000Hz, and 250Hz. Both ears are tested starting at 25 or 30 dB.
describe speech audiometry.
Speech audiometry tests how well a person understands speech and discriminates between speech sounds. Spondee words are presented. The spondee threshold is the lowest hearing level at which the person identifies 50% of words correctly. A word discriminate test uses monosyllabic words presented at a comfortable loudness level and identifies people who can hear but who cannot understand speech.
describe how infancts and young children are tested for hearing acuity
when testing infants the audiologist tries to elicit reflexive responses. auropalpebral reflex- infant closes or tightens eyes when sound is presented. startle reflex- entire body shows sudden movement. With older children, use localization audiometry- child turns head toward the sound.
describe hearing screening
during a hearing screening, a pure tone is presented at 25dB at 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000Hz.
What factors are important to consider in a hearing loss?
age at which loss occured, degree of loss, presence of other conditions, and time and quality of intervention.
Discuss the importance of hearing for learning speech and language.
Through hearing, we learn to understand and produce speech and language. In infancy, hearing enables us to hear environmental and speech sounds. Hearing also enables us to monitor how we are speaking (voice and sound production) and what we are saying (sentence structure, grammar, content).
Describe the difference between HOH population and the deaf in regard to hearing level and communication system used.
HOH people have a loss of 16 dB to 75dB and are able to communicate orally. Deaf people experience a loss that exceeds 75dB and do not usually acquire normal speech.
What is speech reading?
lip reading. learn to undersand speech by looking at the face of the speaker when all the sounds are not heard.
describe ASL as a method of communication.
ASL (American Sign Language) is a visual language. It is used in U.S and Canada. Hand shapes, facial expression, and body movement is used to express ideas and concepts. There is no written form
What are some controversial issues regarding the use of ASL?
There is a fear amongst hearing parents that if their deaf child learns ASL he/she will not learn to speak. Also, many people do not consider ASL a real language because they believe it to be expressive gesturing and it has no written form.
Explain the Indiana School for the Deaf (ISD) philosophy of language and education.
ISD states that all humans a predisposed to learn a natural language. ASL is the natural language of the deaf. English is learned as L2 in written form (read and write). ASL fosters identity in the deaf community.
Explain the Indiana School for the Deaf (ISD) philosophy of language and education.
ISD states that all humans a predisposed to learn a natural language. ASL is the natural language of the deaf. English is learned as L2 in written form (read and write). ASL fosters identity in the deaf community.