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67 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
2 Types of ways to gather information
informally and formally
Demographic analysis
age, gender, sexual orientation, cultural, ethnic, racial background, socioeconomic status
Psychological analysis
attitudes, beliefs, values
Situational analysis
time, location, audience size, location, occasion
Non-verbal cues from the audience
eye contact, facial expression, movement
Responding to nonverbal cues (if audience seems board)
tell a story, example audience can relate to, use a personal example, remind them of why it is important to them, eliminate abstract facts/statistics, use appropriate humor, make direct references to audience, ask them to participate, ask for a direct response, pick up pace of delivery, pause for dramatic effect
Responding to nonverbal cues (if audience is confused or doesn't understand)
be more redundant, phrase in another way (give an example), use visual aids, slow delivery rate, clarify overall message, ask for feedback, ask for audience member to summarize
Responding to nonverbal cues (if audience disagrees with your message)
Provide additional data and evidence to support your point, remind of your credibility, less anecdotes and more facts, write facts on chalkboard
Why is the receiver is important?
The receiver is the audience and the audience is the reason for the speech
3 steps of being an audience-centered speaker
1. gather information
2. analyze the information
3. use information to ethically adapt to your listeners
Process of ethically adapting to your audience
1. To whom am I speaking?
2. What does my audience expect from me?
3. What topic would be most suitable to my audience?
4. What is my objective?
5. What kind of information should I share with my audience?
6. How should I present the information to them?
7. How can I gain/hold their attention?
8. What kind of examples would work best?
9. What language differences do members have?
10. What method of organizing information will be most effective?
What is the difference between oral and written language styles
Oral is more...
1. More personal
2. Less formal
3. More repetative
3 Ways to use words effectivley
1. Use specific, concrete words
2. Use simple words
3. Use words correctly
How to adapt your language style to diverse listeners
1. use language your audience can understand
2. use appropriate language
3. use unbiased language
How to create figurative language
use of metaphors, similies, and personification
How to create drama
use of short sentences, omission, inversion, suspension
How to form cadence
parallelism, antithesis, repetition, alliteration
Tips for using language effectivley in a public speech
use distinctive stylistic devices sparingly, use stylistic devices at specific points in your speech, short words are more forceful than long ones, use stylistic devices to economize
Persuation
The process of changing or reinforcing attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavior
Attitudes
represent our likes and dislikes, easiest to change
Belief
what you understand to be true or false
Value
enduring concept of right or wrong, hardest to change
2 ways you can be persuaded
directly and indirectly
cognitive dissonance
sense of mental discomfort that prompts a person to change when new information conflicts with previously organized thought patterns
Social judgement theory
categorizes listener responsiveness as in the latitude of acceptance, latitude of rejection, or latitude of non-commitment
Proposition of fact
focuses on whether something is true or false or whether it did or did not happen
Proposition of value
Calls for listener to judge worth or importance of something
Proposition of policy
advocates change in policy, procedure, or behavior
Positive motivation
statements suggesting that good things will happen if speakers advice is heeded
Negative motivation
change someones attitudes or behavior by the use of threat and fear
Hierarchy of needs
self-actualization, self-esteem, social, safety, psychological needs
Ethos
speakers credibility
Pathos
Emotional appeal
Logos
formal system of logic
3 factors of ethos
competence, trustworthiness, dynamism
Enhancing credibility
initial, derived, terminal credibility
Types of reasoning
inductive, deductive, causal
Inductive reasoning
specific to general
Deductive reasoning
general to specific
Causal
2 or more events caused another event
7 fallacies
causal, bandwagon, either/or, hasty generalizations, ad hominem, red herring, appeal to misplaced authority
Causal fallacy
b/c one event follows the other doesn't mean the two are related
Bandwagon fallacy
B/c everyone believes it then it must be valid/correct
Either/or
over simplification of an issue into a choice b/t only two outcomes or possibilities
Hasty generalizations
reaches conclusion from too little evidence or non existent evidence
Ad Hominem
attacking person rather than the idea
Red herring
attack issue by using irrelevent facts as distractions
Appeal to misplaced authorities
testimony of expert in one area to endorse area they are not an expert in
Persuading a diverse audience
use evidence, appeals to action, message structure, persuasive communication style
Emotional appeals to persuade
use concrete examples, use emotion-arousing words, non-verbal behavior to communicate, visual aids to evoke emotions, appropriate fear appeals, consider simultaneous appeals to several emotions, tap into audience members beliefs in shared myths
persuading the receptive
identify with your audience, clearly state your speaking objective, tell your audience exactly what you want them to do, ask listenders for an immediate show of support, use emotional appeals effectivley, make it wasy for your listeners to act
Persuading the neutral audience
capture your listeners attention early in your speech, refer to beliefs that many listeners share, relate your topic not only to your listeners but also to their families, friends, and lived ones, be realistic about what you can accomplish
Persuading the unreceptive audience
don't immediately announce that you plan to change their minds, begin your speech by noting areas of agreement before you discuss areas of disagreement, don't expect a major shift in attitude from a hostile audience, acknowledge the opposing pts of view that members of your audience may hold, establish your credibility, consider making understanding rather than advocacy your goal
Strategies for organizing persuasive messages
problem/solution, refutation, cause/effect, monroes motivated sequence
Monroes motivated sequence
attention, need, satisfaction, visualization, action
strategies you can see to attack arguments
attack credibility, evidence as being low credible, NA, or based on fallacies, insufficient, outdated, biased, reasoning as being faulty or having a fallicy, use counter arguments
How to organize your response to your opponents main points
re-state their claim, explain your objection to it, offer evidence if you can support your position, explain your reasoning and/or counter argument
Issues to be concerned with in a rebuttal speech
listen carefully and use both comprehension and critical listening skills, take notes, organize your response to their main points, what can you use in your rebuttal
Who is the father of rhetoric
Aristotle
5 canons of rhetoric
invention, arrangement, style, memory, delivery
Importance of public speaking
makes you a better speaker, teach strategies of being a critical listener as well as having effective delivery, leads to empowerment
7 components of speech communitcation model
source, message, channels, receiver, noise, feedback, context
3 characteristics of an audience centered speaker
make decisions about the content and style of your speech before you speak, be sensitive to your audiences response during the speech so you can make proper adjustments, be sensitive to different cultures you might speak to
Ethics
beliefs, values, and moral principles by which people determine what is right and wrong
Plagarism
presenting someone else's words or ideas as though they were your own
How to avoid plagarism
do your own work and acknowledge sources
Ways to become a better listeners
adapt to the speakers delivery, listen with your eyes as well as your ears, monitor your emotional reaction to a message, avoid jumping to conclustions, be a selfish listener, listen for major ideas