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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is culture
A shared system of ideas, values, beliefs, customs and language that is passed from one generation to the next that sustains a particular way of life.”
how do we learn culture
We learn culture through communication. When you were born you didn’t think that body piercing that were acceptable. Didn’t think of self as individual. These messages make a large impression on us. Mass media, typical body type.
• These cultural perspectives and practices are often internalized
culture is not
defined by Nationality- in Switzerland speak 4 languages, but their culture is different.
• Limited to geographic location
standpoint theory
A culture includes a number of social groups that shape perceptions…our placement in these groups affects our perspective to interpret the world. claims that a culture includes a number of social groups that distinctively shape perceptions, identities, and opportunities of members.
concepts of standpoint theory
Our experience in different groups shape our perceptions. Our orientation and ethnicity can effect how we view society. Groups with the most power tend to communicate in ways that supports their perception of the world. Used to look at some of the issues that are domestic in the US.
Co cultures
groups of individuals who live within the dominant culture, but not in the dominant culture. Not recommended in use. Example is women, or Chicanos, or transgender persons. They are often looked at as outsiders within. At same time outside of system, but inside the system.
Cultural Variations
• Individualism- is tendency to emphasize individuals beliefs
collectivism- may subordinate their needs for the needs of the group
Cultural Variations
High- collectivism, most of the meaning is put in the context. Indirect communication more common, and non-verbal clues used. Less likely to communicate conflict verbally, and not likely to self-disclose in words.
Cultural Variations
Low context communication- people who are individualistic, most of the meaning is in the words, this style is more direct. Ex- “say it like it is” more likely to express conflict verbally, more likely to self-disclose.
Cultural Variations
• Monochronic time orientation- cultures, time is linear, it is doing one thing and another. They adhear to their clients. The US is ruled by a clock
Cultural Variations
polychromic time orientation- the emphasis is more on completing the event or interaction rather than completing them in a certain amount of time. People are more willing to not follow a schedule. It is ok if you play tennis and do business at the same time.
• Person-Centered Communication
recognizing another persons perspectives and taking that into account when you talk to them. When you speak to someone in another language, don’t talk in words that they won’t understand. Adapt your communication with this person in mind.
Respect Others Feelings and Ideas as they present them
. “Oh, you’ll be fine” said by a family member. You want your feelings to be acknowledged. Martha Huston research it is problematic when white people relate to prejudices. African American feel like there is a missed opportunity, and saying that their experience is different, even though it may not.
Resist Ethnocentric Bias
ethnocentricism is when you take it apart, you are putting your ethnicity in the center. You regard yourself or life as being better or superior as somebody else.
Recognize that Adapting to diversity is a Process
and can be difficult. When you want to adapt to intercultural differences, can’t be learned overnight. Any process you go through in your adaptation is normal.
is when you reject beliefs of particular group or culture. You deny their identity or culture by rejecting it.
you reject or give up your ways, and cultural beliefs for the dominant culture, ”melting pot” Look for metaphor in book
you accept your differences, but not willing to approve of them, but not fostering of the community
in terms of culture and communication, you believe that no one culture is better than another.
you see where they are coming from and you can really see the value of it. You appreciate them for who they are.
s where you start to practice these. You practice their values, or adapting. Ex. How you greet people, time management, speaking to somebody from foreign.
Be able to identify some long-term results of gender socialization
Long-term results of this- we see different types of communication rules that subtypes how we communicate
Feminine communication rules
use talk to show interest and include people, is to be used cooperatively, used to invite people in. Talk is to be used expressively, little girls make tea party, lots of talk of personal feelings. From this point of view talk is the foundation for women’s friendships. Through talk they create relationships with in one another. More cooperational, based off of talk
• Masculine communication rules
talk is to be used to assert yourself and to establish your identity, I am the king of the mountain, it is used competition, used to prove yourself, use talk to get something done. In groups men talk more than women. More instrumental, often based off of activities.
What is muted group theory?
Muted group theory- suggests that non dominant groups whether they be women or co culture, are pressured to adapt and change their settings to fit the norm. Date rape- wasn’t a word to describe women’s experience, before that time they had to figure out how to put the words into the situation.
– Suggests the non-dominant must adapt com. to fit dominants’ rules
• Understand the concepts of gender variant and transgender.
Transgender (Gender Variant) refers to any type of person who exhibits behavior that doesn’t conform to their anatomical sex could like to cross dress, drag queen, or they actually get a sex change Transsexual have distinct discomfort with their body, actually want to change your body. You believe you are in the wrong body.
What is organizational communication- simple
Simple definition: com. that occurs within organization. Communication is one of the many things that occur within the organization.
What is organizational communication- comples
• Complex definition: com. Viewed as a way to describe, explain and understand orgs
– Com. constructs org structures and processes. Communication is one of the things that constructs and builds the organization. There is no idea of organization outside of the community.
Bureaucratic Approaches
Bureaucracies characterized by: who they know, who they are related to
– Clear lines of authority- think military and formal chain of command.
– written policies & procedures- training manuals
– rational decision-making- acting rationally is the best way to do thing.
– individual rights- getting individual grades, most people in America are paid as an individual, making it fair for each indiv.
– legal authority- is this idea that societies and organizations should be organized around formal and in personal, and thus objective sets of rules and policies.
• Communication viewed as a tool- messages have to go far.
Difficulties with formal communication
• Messages gradually change: has lots of information, but looses clarification.
– Condensation & simplification
• Other problems include:
– Assimilation is something that listeners often do, and we assimilate messages we make them what we want to hear & sugarcoating- when we are talking we change the messages to what we think the person wants to hear. I have a report that is going to be late
• Can overcome through:
– by-passing chain of command through PR
– redundancy repeat the message over and over again until they can get it.