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45 Cards in this Set

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what is large format printing
it is any printing that is larger than normal (wider than 24 inches)
what made large format printing commonplace and why
piezo drop on demand inkjet, because it can print any kind of ink (normal, thermal, automotive, etc)
what made personal printing commonplace and why
thermal drop on demand inkjet, because the printheads are disposable and you don't worry about cleaning them
what is phase-change ink
phase change ink is solid at room temperature but liquid at heated, so when it is printed it cools as soon as it touches the paper. this makes it tremendously opaque, very bright, but scratch off easily
what are the competing technologies in large format
piezo DOD inkjet, colour photographic printing, electronic airbrushing, electrostatic printing
what is colour photographic printing
printing used for high quality, gigantic, photo-quality posters. it is imaged with 3 lasers and have the best resolution of any process
what is electronic airbrushing
technology from the 1930s, used because it prints gigantic (20ft by however long), OK res, but very fast. it can print auto paints, metal flake, tough stuff for outdoor use that you wont see up close
what is electrostatic printing
printing technology of the 1980s, usually used for blueprints. inkjet took most of their market away. it is used because it is the same quality but prints 5x faster. however it is more expensive
what are trends in large format printing
UV inks, coatings
what are UV ink
they are inks cured by exposure to UV light, are the future. they do not dry unless they are cured.
what are coatings
a mix of clay or titanium dioxide applied to paper to make it shinier. it apparantly suppresses offgassing, but really just spreads it out. it also increases the brightness of colours and the visual colour gamut.
what are holograms
excellent security devices that are impossible to reproduce because they are imaged by a laser under specific conditions. they do not work by reflected light, rather they work by light interference. thus they do not get picked up by scanners or photocopiers. they can also have hidden information only visible under specific wavelength and specific angle. they also destroy themselves when they are peeled
what is special about the way holographic film is taken
every piece contains the entire image, just at a lower resolution. this is because of the laser imaging
what is leafing
its the property for metal flake to act like leaves and float on top of ink
what is E Paper
developed by nicholas sheridan at Xerox PARC in the 70s, it is now defunct. they didnt really work on it until the 1990s
what is e-ink
E-Ink is MIT's version of E-Paper, which uses little coloured pellets inside each microcapsule and thus has potential for "grey values" it is now the leader, since e-paper is dead
what is print on demand
print on demand is an online-market for print runs lengths of one. they are more expensive, usually running 40 dollars each, not the greatest quality, but you can get out-of-print books
how is currency printed
currency is printed on intaglio presses that apply 10 tons of force per inch
what are some security devices built into US currency?
watermarks, holographic ink, red and blue security threads, plastic security thread (can't be bleached, revealed under UV), special formulations for ink, and the paper (UV neutral)
what is US currency made of? international currency?
cotton and linen, international: wood pulp
what is foil stamping
foil stamping is where colour is applied onto paper by heat transfer and a press
what is embossing
giving paper shape by pressing it between hot positive and negative plates. it is ovten used with foil stamping
what is scoring
cutting the fibres
what is die cutting
cutting out shapes for packaging, envelopes, etc
what is calendaring
instead of coating, paper is run between steel and cotton rollers. it is poor man's coating. it is not used in everything because it prevents ink from sinking in
what is cast-coated paper
the best quality, finest, smoothest, best paper you can get. it is made by putting a heavy coating on both sides of the paper and then running it along a gigantic hot steal drum, which transfers that mirror-finish. it is used in the highest end applications
what are brown paper bags made of
craft paper, because groundwood is weak. craft paper is not as strong as cotton or linen, but it is made from chemically digested pulp. it is not bleached because bleaching removes strength
laser marking
product marking technology used for high-end pad printing. it is higher resolution than pad printing
if a signature has 128 pages, how many folds is it
6
what is the first instance of real paper made from trees
4000 years ago in egypt, papyrus. it was made from mulberry, daphne leaves with paste in between (followed by palm leaves, silk, vellum from the greeks)
when was real, pulp, paper invented
AD 105 in china. made from cellulose fibres
when did north america get paper
1690, through groundwood and chemical pulp
who invented the first commercially successful paper-making machine
henry fourdrinier, 1803
how is paper made today
on twin wire forming machines or cylinder paper machines, they make 30ft wide, 3000 ft per min of paper. cylinder paper making lays different types of fiber onto the felt to make a multipulped paper used in packaging
how do you make paper starting from the beginning?
debark the wood, fibrillate the fibres, either heat it up to refine, or chemically digest it (with sulphite, chlorine, and hypochlorite) before formed with twin wire
What are LCDs
LCDs are liquid crystals that use electrical current and twisted nematics to control light passage. light shines from the back end out
what are oleds
organic LEDs are self luminous, and are brighter and sharper than LCDs
what are the components of ink
vehicle, pigment, dryer
what are working proterties of inks
Viscosity, Tack, Fineness of Grind, Strength, Length, Thixotrophy
what are performance problems
Fly or Mist, Emulsification, Pigment Bleeding, Chalking, Ghosting, Mottle
what are examples of vehicles
Non-Drying Oil, Drying Oil, Solvent Resin, Glycol, Resin-Oil, Resin-Wax, Water-Soluble Gum, Photoreactive
what are examples of ink additives
Driers - catalysts, metals
Waxes - prevent setoff, scuff resistance
Lubricants - Aid distribution and transfer
Reducing Oils - Aid penetration and are speed setting
Gums - add viscosity, improve cohesion
Starches - Add body, prevent setoff
what is invisible ink
ink revealed near IR or UV region
what are examples of colour changing inks
Thermochromatic: temperature
Photochromatic: UV
Hydrochromic: Water
Piezochromic: Pressure
what is flexo
printing on a rubber mat, prints easily on many different substrates