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79 Cards in this Set

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Newton Rings
the colors that are produced by interference when a thin film of air/liquid separates glass plates. often seen in film on glass, gas on wet road, soap, etc
Thomas Young
in 1802, he suggested color vision was produced by receptors in the eye responding to various proportions of RED, GREEN, and BLUE
Additive Theory of Light
in 1807, this Thomas Young theory stated that white light is made up of equal parts RGB, theoretically all else is made by mixing 2 or more
photography was invented in ---- by ------ & --------
1839, Talbot & Daguerre
James Clerk Maxwell
in 1861, this physicist demonstrated Young's theory by photographic means - he made the first true color photo image
Triple Projection Process
Maxwell's method of making a color image where he made 3 separate negatives of a plaid ribbon thru RGB filters, then made BW positives of each, then projected each one in line on a white screen to make a color image
daylight (white light)
made of numerous waves/impulses, each with different dimensions/wavelengths. When separated, any single wavelength produces a specific color impression on the eye
color effect
what we actually see as color - when an object is hit w/ light rays, it absorbs some rays and reflects others. the reflected rays determine the color effect
white
color produced when all light rays are reflected
black
color produced when all light rays are absorbed
any color
a reflection of specific wavelengths of light rays
additive colors
Red, Green, and Blue
subtractive colors
Cyan, Magenta, Yellow. these are achieved by mixing 2 of the additive colors
color complements
Red-Cyan, Magenta-Green, Blue-Yellow

when white light passes through a subtractive color, it absorbs its complement but transmits the other 2. (ie M passes R&B, not G)
Color Couplers
the breakthrough process patented by German chemist Rudolph Fischer in 1912, could be used in any camera and is still in use today

1. coat film with 3 silver halide emulsion layers, each sensitive to R,G, and B light.
2. Development activates couplers that form complementary dye colors in each layer - C,M, and Y.
3. each layer records 1 primary, other colors made by combo of 2 layers according to amount of light
4. silver is then bleached out, leaving only dyes
chromogenesis
when color developer oxidizes & combines w/ chemical couplers in emulsion to make dyes

red layer = cyan dye, green layer = magenta dye, blue layer = yellow dye
negative film
also called color print film

Fujicolor Pro & Kodak Portra
- has more latitude
- less contrasty
- must be proofed to see image correctly (contact sheet)
positive film
also called slide film, chrome, transparency. processed using different chemical processes: C41, E6

- requires precise exposure
- easy to view
- easier to know what color should be, because you have a positive
ISO
slower films = less grain, more saturation
latitude
film's ability to provide acceptable results when less than optimum exposure made (good tolerance to over/underexposure)
artificial light
rarely white but our brain remembers how things are supposed to look, makes us believe it's white

(film can't do that, it records what it sees. balanced for daylight)
color temperature
the balance of the amount of colors contained in a continuous spectrum source of light

- measured in terms of the Kelvin scale
- warm light = low K
- cool light = high K
- daylight = 5500 K
- tungsten = 3200-3400 K
Kelvin Scale of light
natural light
7000 = overcast day
5-7000 = noon sun, clear sky (summer)
55-6000 = noon sun, clear sky (winter)
5500 = photographic daylight
3000 = sunrise/set

artificial light
55-6500 = electronic flash
4000 = warm white fluourescent tubes
3400= 3400K photo lamp (floods)
3200 = 3200K tungsten lamp (lamps)
2980 = 200 watt avg household incandescent
1930 = candlelight
discontinuous light source
what fluorescent light does - it fires in varying patterns and is missing wavelengths. produces strong & unpredictable color cast, usually green
color description
each color defined by:
hue, saturation, luminance
hue
name of color (B or Y), gives specific wavelength that is dominant color source
saturation
chroma, apparent vividness or purity of hue
luminance
brightness, appearance of lightness or darkness of color
color relativity
our perception of color is limited. a room lit by red light will eventually appear natural
color contrast
when complementary (opposite) colors appear next to each other in pictures, makes it seem more contrasty, even if the color intensity is the same
color harmony
when colors next to each other on the color wheel appear next to each other, lower contrast
40th Parallel Geological Survey
1860s-70s expedition into the west featuring Carleton Watkins, William Henry Jackson, and Timothy O'Sullivan's photos.

- Watkins & Jackson were responding to Hudson River painters such as Moran, grand style, 'salvation in landscape'
- used wet collodian plates, 9x12 in cameras
- O'Sullivan took less romantic photos
Rephotographic Survey Project
100 years after 40th parallel survey, went back and photographed same places exactly. 3rd View was the same thing in the 90s.
Paul Strand
first half of the 20th century, helped establish photography as an art form
Ansel Adams
staunch environmentalist, had long 60yr course, images changed over time
landscape
physical features of an area of land, or a picture representing an area/countryside
features include:
1. physical land forms
2. living elements (flora & fauna)
3. abstract (light, weather)
4. human activity, built environment
Robert Adams
"The New Topographics" - effort by younger photogs to bring more realism to landscape - showed urban growth, human stamp on western lands

(often stark, often subdivisions)
Peter Goin
man's place in landscape - "consuming American landscape"
CCD's
charge-coupled device - converts analog image into digital form

- scanner uses a line of CCD cells to record one row of data at a time, and then reconfigures it as a grid
- each position on the grid is a pixel
CMO's
complementary metal-oxide semiconductor - also converts analog image into digital form
pixel
a square of uniform brightness & color. word comes from 'picture element'
resolution
the finer the resolution, the larger the number of pictures are needed
digital image
a set of colored tiles that create a realistic scene in a mosaic - the more tiles in the mosaic, the more detail possible. - each pixel in the image is one tile in the mosaic
image file size
corresponds to total number of tiles
resolution
the number of pixels per unit of length (ppi)
PPI
pixels per inch. refers to digital pixel resolution of an image
screen resolution
max # of pixels per inch that a monitor can display at one time. usually between 72-96 but varies
DPI
dots per inch
- printer resolution - the number of dots a printer can apply w/in one physical inch of paper
bit depth
computers record info in binary form, using combinations of 0 and 1
bit
the smallest unit of information, containing only a 0 or 1, yes or no, black or white, on or off
byte
an 8 bit sequence that can represent (2)8 or 256 possibilities such as black, white, and 254 shades of gray in between
kilobyte
1000 bytes
megabyte
a million bytes
gigabyte
a billion bytes
terabyte
a trillion bytes
technical quality of an image determined by:
1. # of pixels it contains, and 2. the # of possible values each picture can hold
bit depth
the # of possible values each pixel can hold

1 bit per pixel - two tones, B or W
8 bits per pixel - 256 tones, from 0 (B) to 255 (W)
- 24 bits per pixel - 16,777,216 tones, enough for a color image

- color images are actually composed of 3 images, one in each channel, RGB. each has 8 bits, so 256 shades in each, and 16mil possible colors
scanning
the resolution you need depends upon the intended use

internet: 72ppi
newspaper: 150ppi
photo-quality print: 240-300ppi
glossy mag: 300-400ppi
histogram
shows the brightness values of all the pixels in an image

256 tones - 0 is B, 255 is W, 128 is middle grey
image adjustment
moving sliders in levels histograms to altern contrast & color
color management
the process of coordinating a digital image's colors (from nature to printer) so you can be reasonably sure of the color that will be finally produced
3 problems in getting what we see onto paper
1. eyes see more colors than any film, digital cam, or scanner, and these capture more colors than any printer can produce
2. exact same color will be read differently by different films, scanners, cameras. each device operates w/ a gamut of colors
3. color is subjective - we all see it a bit differently
gamut
the entire range of colors that can be seen, captured, described, or reproduced by a given device
color profiles
mathematical translators assigned to each piece of equipment you use. as you shoot, scan, adjust, or print.
file size
image size & resolution
example:
image size - 8x10 @ 240ppi
resolution - 1900 x 2400 pixels = 4.6 mil pixels
final file size = 13.8MB
archival pigment prints
the kind of prints we make
types of inks
for inkjet printers, can be made from dyes or pigments. pigments make better prints, last longer. important to make that distinction. we use pigment inks.
James Van der Zee
photographed people in Harlem during the Harlem Renaissance in the 1920s and 30s. went in to people's homes, especially African Americans
environmental portrait
showing the space the individual is in
Walker Evans
worked for the FSA during the Depression - flat, unemotional photos, often used flash. "sensitivity of an insurance salesman"
Dorothea Lange
also FSA, but made very emotive photos. wanted to create social change, was "the master of human gesture"
August Sander
wanted to photograph every type of German
Diane Arbus
worked with square med format, strange people, first woman to have significant show at MOMA
PSD
Photoshop's proprietary format for Photoshop documents. Able to be opened and edited in PShop only. RETAINS LAYERS.
JPEG
compresses photos by discarding pixels determined to be unnecessary (lossy compression). preferred for displaying images on the web or sending snapshots over the internet. more compression reduces file size and image quality. for web/screen use, 8 is usually sufficient. each time you compress an image, it degrades more. if you open a jpeg to readjust it, resave it as a tiff or a psd unless you need to transmit it again.
TIFF
most universal for high-quality photographs. compression is optional and lossless. RETAINS LAYERS.
RAW
unprocessed and just as the camera recorded the image. retains more information than any other type of file. called a digital negative.
PNG
lossless compression format for web-based photos. can interlace images and be displayed in browser windows w/ up to 256 colors. intended to replace GIF and some TIFF
GIF
produces small web filesand is best for flat-color images w/ type or line drawings included. not good for photos.