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30 Cards in this Set

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The first English colony in the New World was founded by the London Company, a business enterprise that enabled investors to pool money for commercial trading and funding for sustaining colonies. The London Company and similar enterprises are called what?
A Joint Stock Company
England's first colony in the New World was Jamestown in Virginia.
Jamestown struggled to survive because of these 3 main problems.
1. A hostile environment
2. colonists did not work for the common good, but only for themselves
3. Unclear goals
Many say that Capt. John Smith was able to turn the colony around by imposing military order. Others argue that the development of tobacco as a cash crop is what saved Jamestown.
The development of tobacco as a cash crop solidified the success of the London Company. They were able to attract more settlers by giving these, also called land grants, and developing local governments called what?
1. Headrights
2. The House of Burgesses
In addition to these two enticements for new settlers, the London Company also brought more women to Virginia to increase the population of the colony.
Lord Baltimore, the proprieter of this colony, insisted on religious toleration in his colony.
In the 1630s Sir George Calvert and his son, The Lords Baltimore, acquired a royal grant to settle a colony north of Virginia. They named it in honor of the queen.
James Oglethorpe founded Georgia with these two purposes in mind.
1. As an utopian vision in order to give hope to the debtors imprisioned in London.
2. to provide a buffer zone between the Carolinas and Spanish territory.
The occupied land was actually claimed by both Spain and England.
Identify a significant difference in family life between the colonies of the Chesapeake region and of New England.
Colonists in New England arrived as family units. In the Chesapeake region colonists were typically single men, there were few women and therefore fewer families in these colonies.
Pilgrims and Puritans founded the New England colonies. Debtors, entrepenures and farmers settled the Chesapeake region.
What single factor led to the perpetual system of social inequality in the Chesapeake region?
The cultivation of tobacco created a society dominated by large plantations manned by slaves,indentured servants, and freemen (typically former indentured servants). Becuase this region was plantation based cities and towns were slow to develop and grow.
This region had a strict social ladder from lowest to highest of: slave, indentured servant, freemen(forming the largest group)and plantation owners.
The Middle Colonies: New York, New Jersey, PA, and Delaware experienced a remarkable amount of diversity among the people who settled there largely due to the Quakers. Who led the Quakers and what colony did they lay claim to?
The Quakers were led by William Penn who founded Pennsylvania as a haven for religious freedom.
The diversity in population and religion in the middle colonies led to many troubles for the Crown.
The Massachusetts Bay Colony, founded by this group, embraced rigorous economic and political institutions. Colonists were bound by a common purpose and religious goal.
The Puritans
In the Massachusetts Bay Colony, unlike Virginia, the town became the center of public life.
The Puritans, who attempted to create a better society by purifying themselves and the Church from within, persecuted people who did not conform to the laws and theology of the legal authorities. These two religous dissenters were expelled from the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson
Upon their banishment these two founded the colony of Rhode Island.
New England colonies benefitting from the social stability of family units. What enviornmental factors contributed to an increased life expectancy and greater colonial growth in New England?
Open spaces, pure drinking water, and a cool climate helped retard the spread of disease and promoted good health in the New England colonies.
The Chesapeake and Southern colonies suffered from high mortality rates due to environmental factors such as contaminated drinking water and contagious diseases.
The loss of this for the Royal African Company in 1689 caused a huge increase in the slave trade to the Americas.
A Crown granted monopoly on the slave trade in the Americas.
Between the 16th and 19th centuries almost 11 million African slaves were brought to the Americas - a very lucrative trade for colonists.
The legal difference between slaves and servants was made clear with the passage of these which made black slaves and their children the property for life of their white masters. These also made it illegal to teach slaves to read and write.
Slave Codes
While slavery may have started in the colonies as an economic institution, it was clear by the end of the 17th century that racial discrimination also powerfully molded the American slave system.
This economic theory shaped imperial policy throughout the colonial period. This theory was built on the assumption that the world's wealth was a fixed supply. Therefore, in order to increase its weath, a nation needed to export more goods than it imported.
This theory created a huge shift in the British policy of indifference toward the colonies to one of intervention.
Parliament passed this series of acts, beginning in 1660, which detailed commercial restrictions and set up the Board of Trade to oversee colonial affairs and limit competition by stipulating that some goods only be shipped to England and her colonies.
The Navigation Acts
These acts caused conflict within the colonies as they restricted trade and colonial income.
Certain raw materials produced in the American colonies, such as tobacco, rice, and sugar were specified in the Navigation Acts as only to be shipped to England and her colonies were called what?
Enumerated Goods
These were the major exports of the Middle and Southern coloies, the Navigation Acts drastically hurt farmers and laborers in these colonies.
This armed rebellion in Virginia (1675-1676) of farmers stemmed from an economic depression and political repression.
Bacon's Rebellion
The rebellion, although unsuccessful, marked the beginning of colonial resistance to British authority.
This, the replacement of James II by William and Mary as English monarchs in 1688, marked the beginning of constitutional monarchy in Britain.
The Glorious Revolution
American colonists celebrated this revolution as a victory for the rule of law over despotism.
In the aftermath of the Glorious Revolution, this man seized control of New York's government.
Jacob Leisler
He was executed as a traitor, but his follwers defended his memory against detractors well into the 18th century.
Originally captured by African coastal tribes and then traded to European "flesh merchants," slaves were transported to the Americas on over crowded ships in what became known as the ____________________.
The Middle Passage
Death rates on these ships reached as high as 20%.
This system was designed to help new immigrants rent farmland.
The Patron System
This was most popular in the Middle Colonies
This group of people beieved that the Church of England still possessed too many elements of Catholicism.
The Separatists
Puritans and Pilgrims were decendants from this group.
This was the first written constitution in North America.
The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
It put the good of the community above that of the individual and provided for the election ofa govenor, six assistants and a legislative body to make laws.
Unlike Massachusetts Bay Colony, Maryland allowed for religious diversity with the passage of these acts.
Acts of Toleration
in the early 1700s England did not enforce laws upon the colonies. This is called what?
salutary neglect
Becuase of this colonists dismissed English law and became acustomed to governing themselves.
The Power of the Purse means what?
England controlled the imports and exports of the colonies, therefore controlling all of the money raised and spent in the colonies.
Who controlled the money in the colonies?
This era led to advancements in sailing, shipbuilding and navigation allowing for the age of exploration to emmerge.
The Renaissance
This law, requiring that a man's estste be passed to his eldest son, was abolished in the states in an effort to root out the notion of an upper class.
The law of Primogeniture
This man turned the colony of Virginia into a profitable enterprise when he began to commercially cultivate tobacco.
John Rolfe
He also married Pocahontas.
This man is most often credited with creating the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut.
Thomas Hooker