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46 Cards in this Set

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What is ATP?
ATP is adenosine triphosphate, it is the energy currency of the cell. It can be made anerobically (without O2) or aerobically (with O2).
Define Carbohydrates and identify some
Carbohydrates are the common energy storage molecules. There are two kinds, sugars and starches. They are made up of polysaccharides which means made of many monosaccharides. Sugars are usually simple such as sucrose, glucose and fructose while carbohydrates are made up of chains of monosaccharides. Examples include, glucose, glycogen, cellulites, and chiten. The latter are called polymers.
Define Lipid and give examples and why they are important
A lipid is made of fatty acid molecules, they are hydrophobic (meaning they repel water), have more energy than carbohydrates, are insulating molecules, and examples include fat and wax. They are important because without lipids, certain oil soluble vitamins cannot be absorbed by the body. In addition they are self organizing with a hydrophilic side and a hydrophobic side.
What 3 factors affect enzyme activity?
Inhibitors- may bind to active site of change the shape of an enzyme.
pH- ions in solution may affect bonds in an enzyme
temperature- increase in temperature means an increase in rxn rate, can also denature an enzyme so it never works the same way again.
Membrane- What is osmosis?
Osmosis is the diffusion across a selectively permeable membrane (ex- cell membrane and water)
What is the pyruvic anerobic pathway?
This only occurs in the absence of oxygen. Designed to free NAD to pick up more hydrogen to allow glycolysis to run longer. NADH will give up Hs to make lactic acid. Thus the C-C-C+H = C-C-C-H. Now the NAD is free to pick up more Hs
Describe the parts of the chloroplast.
Chloroplasts have three membranes- outer, inner, and one organized into thylakoids, the light rxns are embedded in the membrane. Thylakoids is where the chlorophyll is and are organized into granum which float in the stroma (where the dark rxns occur)
Cell theory. Name the 7 most important parts of the cell.
membrane, nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, golgi, mitochondria, and lysosomes
Where do light rxns occur?
They occur deep in the chloroplasts and are light dependent.
Where do dark rxns occur?
They occur in the stroma and are light independent. They use chemical energy to produce gamma.
Plant Cells- what do they have, and what do plants do?
Plant cells have chloroplast, mitochondria, central vacuole, and a cell wall. They do not have lysosomes. Plants trap the energy from the sun and convert it to glucose, a high energy molecule. The animal eats the plant and low energy molecules are produced (CO2 and H2O). Plants take in the CO2 and H2O and turn it into O2.
Describe Glycolysis.
This is the only part that happens in the cytoplasm.
You start with C-C-C-C-C-C then
1. Two ATPs are reduced to ADP so that the extra P (phosporus) can be added to the end. This is called substrate phosphorilization.
P-C-C-C-C-C-C-P
2. Energy is gathered in the middle of the chain and the chain is cleaved (split).
P-C-C-C C-C-C-P
3. Inorganic phosphorus is added to the three carbon molecule. It takes the place of two hydrogen molecules. The carrier NAD picks up the extra Hs and makes NADH. P-C-C-C-P P-C-C-C-P
4. Energy gets concentrated into the C~P bond.
P~C-C-C~P P~C-C-C~P
5. The Ps come off of the carbon chains making 4 ATPs.
C-C-C C-C-C (pyruvic acid)

After Glycolysis there are 4 Molecules of ATP (a net gain of 2 since 2 were used before), 2 molecules of NADH, and two molecules of pyruvic acid.
The Endomembrane system is made up of what things?
The Nuclear envelope, the chromatin, the nucleolus, the endoplasmic reticulum, the ribosomes, the golgi, and the lysosomes.
Mitochondria- where is it? what does it do?
The mitochondria is membrane bound and floats around in the cytoplasm. It has two membranes which inner folds into a cristae. It is the energy generator for the cell.
List some attributes of prokaryotes.
No membrane bound organelles
No nucleus
DNA in loops
No cytoskeleton
Microscopic
Unicellular
Aerobic or Anerobic
fission
Ex- blue-green algae, bacteria
What path does glucose follow? There are three steps, what are they?
Glycolysis, the make ready step, and the citric acid cycle
Scientific method is made of these three steps:
1. Observation which is made of objective and subjective observations.
2. Hypothesis which must have an independent and dependent variable
3. Experimentation in which there must be a control. Characteristics of a good experiment are that there is a single variable, there is a control, the experiment is repeated, and all variables are recorded
What is a protein, give examples.
A protein is made of amino acids joined by a peptide bonds. A polypeptide is a group of amino acids linked together, and is part of whole of a protein. Proteins include enzymes (usually made of C,H,O,N) (they never run out) which are catalysts (increases rxn rates), reactants are called substrates.
How are the mitochondria and the choloroplasts the same?
Both:
generate energy
are two membraned
have genetic material.

fact- plants have both chloroplasts and mitochondria
Chloroplasts- what are they, what do they do?
Chloroplasts have multiple sets of membranes with inner membranes enclosing spaces where different rxns take place. Cell respiration is complementary to Photosynthesis. The thalakoids (thin mint looking strudtures) convert the light energy from the sun and change it to chemical energy.
Endoplasmic reticulum- what is it? what are the two kinds? and their functions?
The endoplasmic reticulum is a maze of membranes that makes more membranes, they are studded with ribosomes for protein production (protein made from amino acids). The two kinds are rough ER (makes proteins used outside of the ER) and smooth ER which doesn't have ribosomes (makes lipid-base products to made membranes out of)
Central vacuole- what is it?
The central vacuole gives structure to plant cells and also gets rid of the bad stuff. It mirrors the lysosome in this respect.
Define the following parts of leaf anatomy- cuticle, stomata, vascular bundles, chlorophyll.
Cuticle- a transparent covering to let in sunlight, it's a solar collector.

Stomata- Openings in covering to let in CO2

Vascular bundles- vessels to deliver water and minerals

chlorophyll- must be organized in a membrane and associated with certain proteins for photosynthesis to occur. Bacteria don't have chloroplasts because chloroplasts are membrane bound and bacteria are prokaryotes. But chloroplasts aren't necessary for photosynthesis, blue-green algae can do it.
Lysosomes- what are they?
The are membrane enclosed packages of enzymes, usually found in animal cells that help recycle materials.
What are the two relic symbions we've studied and what does that mean?
The two are mitochondria and chloroplast. A relic symbion has genetic material and appear to be relics from early relations. The relic symbiotic theory states that certain prokaryotic cells may have invaded other cells and then became symbiotic.
Membrane- What is the difference between hypertonic and hypotonic?
Hypertonic has less dissolved material in the cell, and example is freshwater organisms, and when the concentration of something in higher outside of the cell, the water will flow out of it and the cell will shrivel.

Hypotonic is when there is more dissolved material in the cell than on the outside, salt-water organisms are hypotonic to the environment. The cells willl get bigger when water is added.
Name the four major organic molecules.
Carbohydrates, Lipids, Nucleic Acid, Proteins
What is the relation between water, CO2, and the stomata?
Stomatas are on the underside of hte leaf, so that they won't dry out. They open and close so that CO2 may enter. H20 exits. When dehydrated, stomatas will close, inhibiting CO2 intake. The top of the leaf also has a waxy covering to prevent water loss.
What is substrate phosphoralation?
when phosphates are added to a molecule
Cytoskeleton- what is it?
It gives the cell shape, it is made of molecular filaments linked by having parts added to them. It's very important when the cells reproduce.
What is the difference between positive and negetive feedback?
Negetive feedback is stabilizing, repetitive, and used to restore an imbalance. It is sometimes the product of a rxn series which inhibits the 1st enzyme in a series. The buildup of product feeds back to decrease production.

Positive feedback is when the production of something makes more of it. In bio, such feedback is rare, examples include death.
Golgi- what is it?
The Golgi is a layered membrane (like a stack of pitas) that is involved in cell secretians. It may package the secretians from the ER and from the lysosomes.
Nucleus- What is the Nucleus made up of?
The Nucleus is made up of a double-layered nuclear envelope, the chromatin (chromosome materials stretched out and only compact during cell reproduction), and the Nucleolus. The Nucleolus is not membrane bound and is the site of synthesis and storage of ribosomal RNA (how to make ribosomes). A cell needs the nucleus to reproduce, but not to live. The cell will not indefinitely live w/o a nucleus.
Levels of organization
Ecosystem, Community, Population, Organism, Organ System, Organ, Tissue, Cellular, Chemical
What is the Cell theory and who is responsible for each part?
Cell theory:
1. All living material is made of cells (Schlieden and Schwann)
2. Living cells arise from pre-existing cells (Pasture and virchow 1858)
Animal Cells- what does it have, what doesn't it?
Animal cells have lysosomes that degrade large molecules and worn out organelles but lack chloroplasts, central vacuole, and cell wall.
Membrane- What is active transport?
It is when something requires energy to move through a cell membrane. It is when something is going from a lower concentration to a higher one, this effort requires ATP. Two words to be familiar with- endoycytosis (going in) and exocytosis (putting out)
Membrane-What is diffusion?
Diffusion is the movement of molecules from an area of greater concentration of molecules to an area of lesser concentration
What did Von Helmont show?
Ancients thought that the plants ate soil. In the 1700s Von Helmont proved that it didnt, plants need something from the atmosphere, mainly CO2 for weight, not water. Water is used for it's electrons.
Membrane- What is isotonic?
When the concentrations inside and out are the same
When energy is boosted to a higher energy level and then returns to it's original level three things can happen. Name them.
1. Energy can be given off as heat
2. Energy can be given off as light
3. Energy can trigger a chemical rxn as in photosynthesis.
Membrane- What are the two membrane hypothesis and by who?
1. Danelli's unit membrane hypothesis of 1940 says that membranes are selectively permeable. The membrane is like a sandwich with proteins as the bread and lipids as the center. Thus lipid and lipid solubles move through it readily. There are pores, because water must move through it readily, various ions pass through it with ease meaning that they have a charge, and that physical properties include wettability and a protein layer.

2. SJ Singers Fluid Mosaic model states that the bi-phospholipid could be traversed by an antipathic protein. Meaning that this sandwich has proteins round about, some of them are transmembranal channels that water or other things can pass through.
Ribosomes- what are they? and where?
Ribosomes aren't membrane bound and are made of ribosomal RNA. They synthesize proteins for use in the cell. Some occur free of the ER and polypeptide chains take them to the next place to be processed. The ER ribosomes make stuff for outside of the cell while the free-floaters made the stuff for inside.
What materials are needed for photosynthesis?
Water, Carbon Dioxide, Sunlight, and Soil
List some attributes of Eukaryotes.
membrane bound organelles
Nucleus
linear chromosomes
cytoskeleton
large
multicellular
usually aerobic
sexual reproduction
ex- people, plants
Define nucleic acid. Where is it found, what is it made of, what are the two main kinds.
Nucleic acid carry information, is made of nucleotides, and is found in the nucleus. The two kinds are DNA and RNA. DNA is an information repository for making cells. RNA carries information ot make proteins. DNA gets its name from the sugar molecule contained in its backbone (deoxyribose), however it gets its significance from its unique structure. There are four different nucleotide bases that occur in DNA: adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G) and thymine (T). Ribonucleic acid, or RNA, gets its name from the sugar group in the molecule's backbone - ribose. Similarities and differences exist between RNA and DNA. Like DNA, RNA has a sugar-phosphate backbone with nucleotide bases attached to it. The sugar and phosphate group is the same the difference is in the nitrogen containing base. Like DNA, RNA contains the bases adenine (A), cytosine (C) and guanine (G); however, RNA does not contain thymine, instead, RNA's 4th nucleotide is the base uracil (U). Unlike the double-stranded DNA molecule, RNA is a single-stranded molecule.