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15 Cards in this Set

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biological anthropologist, esp. human osteologist
he who initially analyzes the relevant archaeological evidence
biological archaeology (bioarchaeology)
a formal interface between biological anthropology (including human osteology) and archaeology
morbidity (as opposed to mortality)
sickness
mortality (as opposed to morbidity)
death
Paleopathology
the study of ancient disease, deformity, and death
TYPES OF EVIDENCE AVAILABLE for paleopathology
soft tissues, parasites and viruses, skeletal evidence, teeth
Demographic archaeology
estimates from archaeological data of various aspects of populations (ie. size, density, rates of growth) Also, the role of population in culture change. Seeks to understand links among population, resources, technology, and society, mostly by developing simulation models
Paleodemography
concerned with the study of human skeletal remains to estimate population parameters such (fertility and mortality rates, life expectancy, population structure)
ethnoarchaeology
"the study of contemporary behavioral relationships that underlie the production of material culture to aid in unraveling the archaeological record.”
experimental archaeology
"the study of past behavioral processes through experimental reconstruction under controlled scientific conditions.”
William Johnson Sollas (1849-1936)
coined phrase “ethnographic analogy”
John Yellen
.work among the !Kung Bushmen foragers of the Kalahari Desert in Botswana
. Provided little support for the common assumption that artifacts found in similar archaeological contexts must have been involved in similar activities
*this can be applied to the interpretation of a wide variety of archaeological contexts
J. Peter White
.worked with Duna-speakers in the highlands of New Guinea
*mental template concept
over-arching considerations for experimental archaeology
.materials used should have been locally available to the original people
. methods used should not exceed technological competence of the ancient society
. experiments should be repetitive, if possible, building on previous results
. results of experiments are NOT absolute proof of past behavior, but suggest certain conclusions
.corroborative evidence should always be sought – more experiments, ethnoarchaeology, excavation.
The most fundamental question guiding archaeology today
“Why did things change?”