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70 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
group of cell bodies
molecular layer
has mostly cell bodies
Name a brain fact
If you unroll the cortex and flatten it, it'd be the size of a large pizza
effects of hypothyroid
slow metabolism, weight gain, STM problems
Role of sympathetic
fight or flight
What is Area 8?
Prefrontal CTX
top looking down
effects of hyperthyroid
higher metabolism rate, anxiousnes
what are the extreme cases of hyperthyroid
the symptoms appear to be almost like skitzophrenia, and you may die because the cardiac system is exhausted
Name 3 examples that proves this statement true: "If there is an imbalance in hormonal structure, this can cause cognitive imbalance."
1) cognitive effects when have hypothyroid
2) cognitive effects when have hyperthyroid
3) cognitive effects when decreased estrogen
What is stress?
Somatic responses to noxious demands upon the body
What was the purpose of the Mackewon and Spalsky experiment?
To show that chronically stressed rats have poor spatial memory
__________ implies that an organ constantly varies and adjussts physiological parameters to maintain stability
What are the disadvantages/adv's to PET?
Dis: Invasive
Advj: Ok Spatial Resolution
what is adv/disadv of EEG?
adv: good temporal
disd: bad spatial
What is adv/disadv of fMRI?
adv: good spatial
disdv: poor temporal
Give 1 Adv and 2 Disadvs to Lesion Studies.
Advs: Valuable clues to structures Disadvs: Disrupts circuitry and rarely have perfectly occurring lesion
What things about fMRI makes us skeptical about imaging techniques as being accurate?
1) Unreliable because blood flow is not neuronally fixed
2) the time scale is a liability because the 1 second lookat of the structure is inaccurate
What are some limitations of EEG?
1) the scalp smears the electrical signals
2) you only get to measure neurons near scalp and perpendicular to scalp
3) neurons aligned opposite each other cancel each other
4) neurons must be fired in synch in order to be detected
What is an ERP a result of?
The brain's response to a specific activity (tone or flash for ex).
What is an N400 response?
It's a response to mismatches/ semantic anomaly
What is a P300 response?
It is a brain response to attention/ 1 thing vs. another.
Name the area in the brain that separates the hypothalamus and the pituitary
The Median Eminence
How does input come into the brain?
Through the cranial nerve
What info is sent to the posterior sulcus?
Visual info
Stress response effect on WM:
decreases WM due to increase of NE realease
rostral (head)
What is main role of paraventricular nucleus?
realeases corticosteroids which produce stress/ flight
What can modulate heart rate?
Glutocorticoid receptors in the brain
What does the adrenal gland secrete?
NE and EP (adrenaline)
What was the purpose of the baboon study?
To show that social hierarcy can lead to chronic stress systems
if someone has chronic food deprivation and nver gets food, food level needed is never reached and will die. what is this a hypothalamal theory of?
What is the role of Gluccorticoids?
they give negative feedback to ACTH production in the anterior pituitary and inhibit CRH neurons.
Identify the regions which contain most of these NT's:
1) serotonin
2) locus coerulus
3) dopamine
4) Ach
1) Raphe Nuclei
2) Norepinephrine
3) Substantia Nigra/ Ventral Tegmental Area
4) Basal Forebrain
Where is there a high density of Cortico Realeasing Hormone receptor sites?
Frontal CTX
Emotional Stressors cause NE to go to these brain structors
Amyg, Hypo, BVST
if someone has chronic food deprivation, and creature adjusts, they would survive longer. This is an example of what hypothalamal theory?
Where is the entorhinal CTX?
Next to temporal lobe
Why would the hippocampus be the most epileptic prone structure of the brain?
Because of its trisynaptic loop and the volley between structures
What are the feedbacks of Gluccorticoids?
+ Amygdala
+ LC and Brain Stem Nuclei
+ Bed Nucleus of Stria Terminalis (BNST)...DA rich area
- Pituitary
- PVN (inhibits further realease of CRF from hypothal)
- Hippocampus
- Prefrontal CTX (WM is downregulated)
what are the main roles of the hypothalamus?
1) fight, flight, feeding, fornication
2) mediating cognition
3) provides feedback to the other systems
What happens when you have heightened levels of gluccocorticoids?
there will be increases and decreases of protein synthesis in brain
Show Thyroid pathway
hypothalamus->TRH->portal system
-> anterior pituitray-> TSH->Thyroid-> thyrocin-> bind to T3/T4

T3/T4-> (feedback loop) pituitary
T3/T4-> (feedback loop) LC & Basal Forebrain
Visceral Responses to Stress: Sympathetic
(+) cardiac output
(+) stroke volume
(+) blood glucose
(+) heart rate
(+) blood pressure

(-) peripheral vascular resistance
Name the skull layers
skull->dura mater->pia mater
What are the interactions of hormones/ feedback loops
Brain, other hormones
effect of hypergluttocorticoid
makes you lose memory
Show PVN pathway
PVN of hypothalamus-> CRH-> Anterior Pit-> ACTH-> Adrenal CTX-> gluccorticoids

FEEDBACK: Adrenal CTX and Hypothalamus
Visceral Response on Stress: Stomach
(+) Gastric Acid
(+) Gastric emptying
What was the purpose of the Tree Shrew experiment?
To show that acute social stress led subordinate shrews to have substantially less neurogenesis
____________ implies that an organ remains w/in a certain range of physiological parameters to be stable
What are the watershed regions?
Region where the middle and anterior cerebral arteries meet
What happens if you take estrogen away?
STM and attention is disrupted.
Role of Parasympathetic
Rest and Digest/ homeostasis
Visceral Responses of Stress: Adrenal Medulla
(+) Epinephrine release
Physical Stressors cause NE to do go to these structures:
1) thoracic SC
2) Barrington's Nucleus
Where does Neurogensis occur?
In dentate gyrus of hippocampus in rats who exercised
During stress, affective memory is _________.
NT's that turn on REM:
NT's that turn off (prevent) REM activity:
Why is there desynchronized cortical activity during REM?
maybe produced by the pons due to the projections from the ponine nuclei to the thalamic nuclei (which then projects to various coritcal areas)
Why do we have muscular paralysis during REM?
Possibly due to ACh neurons that project caudally t othe magnocellular nucleus of the medial medulla and then to spinal cord
WHy do we have Rapid Eye Movements during REM?
Probably because of the pontine nuclei (LDT anbd PPT) that project to the superior colliculus and to the meidal reticular formation
What produces slow wave sleep?
The nucleus of the solitary tract in the medulla
Give 3 Experimental Evidence for slow wave sleep
1) if lesion nucleus of solitary tract of medulla, you produce EEG synchrony as in Slow wave sleep.
2) if you record from the nucleus of the solitary tract in the cat, you see an increased firing during slow wave sleep
3) if you stimulate particular ares of the basal forebrain region, you see EEG synchrony and sleep
What substances can increase slow wave sleep?
Carbs (causes more secretion of insulin)
What substances facilitate REM sleep?
Eating protein (causes more somatostatin)
Production of ________________ facilitates the realease of interleukin 1 in the brain which increases _______________ sleep
muramyl peptides; slow wave
Intake of ________________________ facilitates sleep induction