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17 Cards in this Set

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Segregation
Output from each sensory cell directly and singularly affects the input to each action cell
Desegregation: Divergence
Output from each sensory cell directly affects the inputs to multiple action cells
Desegregation: Convergence
Several outputs from multiple sensory cells directly affect the input to one action cell
Synaptic Potentiation/Depression
Changes in the amount of depolarization in a post-synaptic neuron when an input neuron (presynaptic) releases neurotransmitter following an action potential-termed changes in 'synaptic efficacy'
What do changes in synaptic efficacy reflect?
They can reflect either changes in depolarization caused by increases or decreases in the amount of NT released by an action potential (presynaptic change) and/or increases or decreases in the amount of response of the postsynaptic neuron to the same amount of glutamate released by the presynaptic neuron
What do post-synaptic changes usually reflect?
Post-synaptic changes usually reflect changes in the shape of the synapse, changes in the number of ionotropic receptors, changes in the kinetics of ionotropic receptors, and/or development or retraction of contacts (synapses) between neurons
What do changes in synaptic efficacy depend on?
Changes in synaptic efficacy often depend on the timing and/or amount of co-activity between two neurons ('fire together, wire together')
Co-activity rules for two connected neurons
-For any two connected neurons, the co-activity rules for synaptic change may differ greatly
-Co-activity leading to changes in synaptic efficacy may depend on the presence or absence of a third party such as a neuromodulator or peptide
Dendritic spines of cortical neurons in Fragile-X mice
-mental retardation
-longer/immature
Spike timing dependent plasticity
-Changes in synaptic 'efficacy' between two neurons (one presynaptic, the other postsynaptic) related to the relative timing of their action potentials
Pavlovian fear conditioning
Association of an initially neutral tone (Conditioned Stimulus) with a foot-shock results in 'freezing' responses when the tone alone is played
Conditioned Stimulus (before Unconditioned Stimulus)
Curiosity
Conditioned Stimulus paired with Unconditioned Stimulus
Shock and Awe (freezing)
Conditioned Stimulus (after Unconditioned Stimulus)
Conditioned freezing
What are the pathways of fear conditioning before and after pairing?
Tell me.
Labile
Memories in the amygdala are 'labile'-their recall makes them vulnerable to erasure or consolidation
-This aspect of memories is being used by psychologists to cure PTSD
'Fire Together Wire Together'
-Known as Hebbian Theory
-describes a mechanism for synaptic plasticity wherein an increase in synaptic efficacy arises from the presynaptic cell's repeated and persistent stimulation of the postsynaptic cell
-If axon of cell A is near enough to excite cell B and repeatedly or persistently takes part in firing it, some growth process or metabolic change takes place in one or both cells such that A's efficiency, as one of the cells firing B, is increased.
-simultaneous activation of cells leads to pronounced increases in synaptic strength