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87 Cards in this Set

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Articulatory suppression
Interference with operation of the phonological loop that occurs when a person repeats an irrelevant word such as "the" as he or she is carrying out a task that requires the phonological loop.
Central executive
The part of working memory that coordinates the activity of the phonological loop and the visuospatial sketch pad.
Chunk
Used in connection with the idea of chunking in memory, a chunk is a collection of elements that are strongly associated with each other, but are weakly associated with elements in other chunks.
Chunking
Combining small units into larger ones, such as when individual words are combined into a meaningful sentence. Chunking can be used to increase the capacity of memory.
Coding
The form in which stimuli are represented in the mind. For example, information can be represented in visual, semantic, and phonological forms.
Control processes
In Atkinson and Shiffrin's modal model of memory, active processes that can be controlled by the person and may differ from one task to another. Rehearsal is an example this
Delayed-response task
A task in which information is provided, a delay is imposed, and then memory is tested. This task has been used to test monkeys' ability to hold information about the location of a food reward during a delay.
Digit span
The number of digits a person can remember. This is used as a measure of the capacity of short-term memory
Echoic memory
Brief sensory memory for auditory stimuli that lasts for a few seconds after a stimulus is extinguished.
Iconic memory
Brief sensory memory for visual stimuli that lasts for a fraction of a second after a stimulus is extinguished. This corresponds to the sensory memory stage of the modal model of memory.
Long-term memory
A memory mechanism that can hold large amounts of information for long periods of time. This memory is one of the stages in the modal model of memory.
Memory
The processes involved in retaining, retrieving, and using information about stimuli, images, events, ideas, and skills, after the original information is no longer present.
Modal model of memory
The model proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin describing memory as a mechanism that involves processing information through a series of stages, which include short-term memory and long-term memory. It is called the modal model because of the great influence it has had on memory research.
Partial-report procedure
The procedure used in Sperling's experiment in which he was studying the properties of the visual icon. His participants were instructed to report only some of the stimuli in a briefly presented display.
Persistence of vision
The continued perception of light for a fraction of a second after the original light stimulus has been extinguished. Perceiving a trail of light from a moving sparkler is caused by this
Phonological coding
Coding in the mind in auditory form. An example of phonological coding would be remembering something in terms of its sound. For example, since the letters 't' and 'p' sound the same, they have similar phonological codes.
Phonological loop
The part of working memory that holds and processes verbal and auditory information.
Phonological similarity effect
An effect that occurs when letters or words that sound similar are confused. For example, "T" and "P" are examples of two similar-sounding letters that could be confused.
Primacy effect
In a memory experiment in which a list of words is presented, enhanced memory for words presented at the beginning of the list.
Proactive interference
A situation in which information learned previously interferes with learning new information.
Recency effect
In a memory experiment in which a list of words is presented, enhanced memory for words presented at the end of the list.
Rehearsal
The process of repeating a stimulus over and over, usually for the purpose of remembering it, by keeping it active in short-term memory.
Release from proactive interference
A situation in which conditions occur that eliminate or reduce the decrease in performance caused by proactive interference. See Wilkens's experiment described in Chapter 5.
Retrieval
The process of remembering infor­mation that has been stored in long-term memory.
Semantic coding
Coding in the mind in the form of meaning. An example of this coding would be remembering the meaning of something you have read, as opposed to what the letters or words looked like or sounded like
Sensory memory
A brief stage of memory that holds information for seconds or fractions of a second. It is the first stage in the modal model of memory. Visual
Serial-position curve
In a memory experiment in which a number of participants are presented with a list of words, __________ is a plot of the percentage of participants remembering each word, versus the position of that word in the list. See also Primacy effect; Recency effect.
Short-term memory
A memory mechanism that can hold a limited amount of information for a brief period of time, usually around 30 seconds, unless there is rehearsal (such as repeating a telephone number) that can maintain information in long-term memory. Short-term memory is one of the stages in the modal model of memory.
Structural features
In the modal model of memory, these features are the various stages of the model, such as sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory.
Visual coding
Coding in the mind in the form of a visual image. An example of this would be remembering something by conjuring up an image of it in your mind.
Visual icon
Brief sensory memory for visual stimuli, which lasts for a fraction of a second after a stimulus is extinguished. This icon is associated with the sensory memory stage of the modal model of memory.
Visuospatial sketch pad
The part of working memory that holds and processes visual and spatial information.
Whole-report procedure
The procedure used in Sperling's experiment in which he was studying the properties of the visual icon. His participants were instructed to report all of the stimuli they saw in a brief presentation.
Word-length effect
The finding that it is more difficult to remember a list of long words than a list of short words.
Working memory
A limited capacity system for temporary storage and manipulation of information for complex tasks such as comprehension, learning, and reasoning.
Attention
Focusing on specific features of the environment or on certain thoughts or activities.
Attenuation theory of attention
Anne Treisman's model of selective attention, that proposes that selection occurs in two stages. In the first stage, an attenuator analyzes the incoming message and lets through the attended message—and also the unattended message, but at a lower (attenuated) strength.
Automatic processing
Processing that occurs automatically without the person intending to do it, and which also uses few cognitive resources. This is associated with easy or well-practiced tasks.
Change blindness
Difficulty in detecting changes in scenes that are presented one after another. The changes are often easy to see once attention is directed to them, but are usually undetected in the absence of appropriate attention.
Cocktail party phenomenon
The ability to focus attention on one message and ignore others. The name is taken from the ability to pay attention to one conversation at a crowded party without attending to other conversations that are happening at the same time
Controlled processing
Processing that involves close attention. This term is especially associated with Schneider and Shiffrin's (1977) experiment, which showed that controlled processing was needed in the difficult, varied mapping condition of their experiment, even after extensive practice.
Dichotic listening
The procedure of presenting one message to the left ear and a different message to the right ear.
Dictionary unit
A component of Treisman's attenuation theory of attention. This processing unit contains stored words and thresholds for activating the words. This helps explain why we can sometimes hear a familiar word, such as our name, in an unattended message.
Divided attention
The ability to pay attention to, or carry out, two or more different tasks simultaneously.
Early-selection model
Model of attention that explains selective attention by early filtering-out of the unattended message. In Broadbent's model, the filtering step occurs before the message is analyzed to determine its meaning.
Filter model of attention
A model of attention that proposes that selective attention is achieved by a filtering out of unattended messages. The first early model of attention was proposed by Donald Broad
Flanker-compatibility task
A procedure in which participants are instructed to respond to a target stimulus that is flanked, or surrounded, by distractor stimuli that they are supposed to ignore. The degree to which the distractor interferes with responding to the target is taken as an indication of whether the distractor stimuli are being processed.
Late-selection model of attention
A model of selective attention that proposes that selection of stimuli for final processing does not occur until after the information in the message has been analyzed for its meaning.
Location-based attention
Models of attention that propose that attention operates on whatever stimuli are at a particular location. This contrasts with object-based attention, in which attention is focused on a particular object.
Object-based attention
Model of attention proposing that the enhancing effects of attention can be located on a particular object. This contrasts with location-based attention, in which attention is focused on a location.
Precueing procedure
A procedure in which participants are given a cue which will, usually, help them carry out a subsequent task. This procedure has been used in visual attention experiments in which participants are presented with a cue that tells them where to direct their attention.
Selective attention
The ability to focus on one message and ignore all others.
Shadowing
The procedure of repeating a message out loud as it is heard. This is commonly used in conjunction with studies of selective attention that use the dichotic-listening procedure.
Spotlight model of attention
The model of visual attention that conceives of attention as having an effect similar to a spotlight that, when directed at different locations, increases the efficiency for which signals at that location can be processed.
Stroop effect
An effect originally studied by J. R. Stroop, using a task in which a person is instructed to respond to one aspect of a stimulus, such as the color of ink that a word is printed in, and ignore another aspect, such as what the word spells. The Stroop effect refers to the fact that people find this task difficult because the ink color differs from what the word spells.
Task load
How much of a person's cognitive resources are used to accomplish a task. The idea of task load is important for some explanations of selective attention and also for explanations of how people process information in working memory.
Unilateral neglect
A condition that is usually associated with damage to the right parietal lobe, in which the person ignores stimuli presented in the left half of the visual field. Neglect is usually described as a lack of attention to the left side of space.
Zoom lens model
A model of selective attention that conceives of attention as being like a zoom lens, in which attention can be spread over large areas or 'zoomed in' to be focused on smaller areas. See also Spotlight model of attention.
Alzheimer's disease
A condition that eventually results in severe memory deficits, especially affecting the ability to form new long-term memories.
Consolidation period
The time that it takes for memory consolidation to occur
Declarative memory
Memory that involves conscious recollections of events or facts that we have learned in the past.
Deep processing
Processing that involves attention to meaning and relating an item to something else. This KIND ______ of processing is usually associated with this kind of rehearsal.
Depth of processing
The idea that the processing that occurs as an item is being encoded into memory can be deep or shallow. Deep processing involves attention to meaning and is associated with elaborative rehearsal. Shallow processing involves repetition with little attention to meaning, and is associated with maintenance rehearsal.
Distributed versus mass practice effect
Memory is better if learning occurs in a number of short study sessions, with breaks in between, than if learning occurs in one long session.
Elaborative rehearsal
Rehearsal that involves thinking about the meaning of an item to be remembered or making connections between that item and prior knowledge.
Encoding
The process of acquiring information and transferring it into memory.
Encoding specificity
The principle that we learn information together with its context. This means that presence of context can lead to enhanced memory for the information. See also State-dependent learning.
Episodic memory
Memory for specific events that have happened to the person having the memory. These events are usually remembered as a personal experience that occurred at a particular time and place. These and semantic memory, together, make up declarative memory.
Implicit memory
Memory that occurs when an experience affects a person's behavior, even though the person is not aware that he or she had the experience. Also called nondeclarative memory.
Korsakoff's syndrome
A condition caused by prolonged vitamin B1 deficiency that leads to destruction of areas on the frontal and temporal lobes, which causes severe impairments in memory.
Levels of processing
Part of levels of processing theory that states that there are different depths of processing that can be achieved information is being encoded. See also Levels of processing theory; Depth of processing.
Levels-of-processing theory
The idea that memory depends on how information is encoded, with better memory being achieved when processing is deep than when processing is shallow. Deep processing involves attention to meaning and is associated with elaborative rehearsal. Shallow processing involves repetition with little attention to meaning and is associated with maintenance rehearsal.
Long-term potentiation (LTP)
The increased firing that occurs in a postsynaptic neuron due to prior activity at the synapse.
Maintenance rehearsal
Rehearsal that involves repetition without any consideration of meaning or making connections to other information.
Medial temporal lobe (MTL)
An area in the temporal lobe that consists of the hippocampus and a number of surrounding structures. Damage to this area causes problems in forming new long-term memories.
Memory consolidation
Strengthening of the neural information representing a memory over time.
Nondeclarative memory
See Implicit memory.
Procedural memory
Memory for how to carry out highly practiced skills. This memory is a type of implicit memory, because although people can carry out a skilled behavior, they often cannot explain exactly how they are able to carry out this behavior.
Propaganda effect
When people are more likely to rate statements they have read or heard before as being true, just because of prior exposure to the statements.
Repetition priming
When an initial presentation of a stimulus affects the person's response to the same stimulus when it is presented later.
Retrieval cues
Cues that help a person remember information that is stored in memory.
Retrograde amnesia
Loss of memory for something that happened prior to an injury or traumatic event such as a concussion.
Self-reference effect
Memory for a word is improved by relating the word to the self.
Semantic memory
Memory for knowledge about the world that is not tied to any specific personal experience.
Shallow processing
Processing that involves repetition with little attention to meaning. This kind of processing is usually associated with maintenance rehearsal.
State-dependent learning
The principle that memory is best if a person is in the same state for encoding and retrieval. This principle is related to encoding specificity.
Transfer-appropriate processing
When the type of encoding that occurs during acquisition matches the type of encoding that occurs during acquisition. This type of processing can result in enhanced memory.