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91 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
177. Describe density of rods and cones as a function of degrees from fovea
178. What do cones see?

What part of the visual field do cones see?
Cones see colors and fine details

Cones also see the center of the visual field
180. How do surrounding letters affect visual acuity?
They serve as visual distractors and decrease visual acuity
180. Describe the visual acuity for word identification
See Graph
181. What does word identification depend upon?
Word identification depends upon high-resolution vision
182. What is high-resolution vision limited to?
Limited to the fovea (central 2⁰ of visual field)
183. How does visual resolution decrease as you move from fovea?
As you move from fovea to parafovea to peripheral vision, visual resolution decreases rapidly
184. How far doe the parafovea extend?
It extends 5⁰ from center
185. What is the most fundamental task of reading?
Eye movement
186. Where do eye movements place words during reading?
Eye movements are directed so as to place each word in the fovea
188. What are saccades?
Ballistic movements that move the eyes from one location to the next (derived from French word meaning "jump")
189. What is the oculomotor system?
Neural systems that program and execute saccades
187. What are two types of eye movements?
1. Voluntary eye movements (saccades in reading)

2. Smooth eye movements
190. How long does it take to program saccades?
180-230 ms
191. What are the two stages in which saccades are programmed?
1. First (labile) stage

2. Second (non-labile) Stage
192. How long does the labile stage take?

Can it be canceled?
1. 140-170 ms

2. Can be canceled
193. How long does the non-labile stage take?

Can it be canceled?
1. 40-80 ms

2. Cannot be canceled
194. What is the duration of saccades?
20-35 ms
195. How long does it take for information to go from the retina to the brain?
50 ms
200. What is an eye tracker?
-It measures eye movement
-It's used to help learn how we control eye movements
201. What are the three types of eye trackers?
1. Video-based

2. Search-coil

3. Dual-Purkinje Image (DPI)
202. Describe the video-based eye tracker.

Four points...
1. Poor spatial resolution
(⁺/₋ 1.5⁰)
2. Fair temporal resolution
(250 Hz)
3. Very easy to use
4. Can be mounted on head; not affected by head motion
202. Describe the search-coil eye tracker.

Three points...
1. Excellent spatial resolution (⁺/₋ 2⁰)
2. Good temporal resolution (1000 Hz)
3. It's invasive; subjects must wear a contact lens
203. Describe the Dual-Purkinje Image eye tracker.

Four points...
1. Excellent spatial resolution (⁺/₋ 1⁰)
2. Excellent temporal resolution (4000 Hz)
3. Uses a bite-bar to reduce head motion
4. Can be difficult to operate
206. What are some general properties of saccades with English text?

Two things...
1. Typically move the eyes forward 7-9 character spaces (2⁰)

2. Character spaces are appropriate metric (due to trade-off between visual resolution and viewing distance)
207. What is regression?
10-15% move eyes backwards
208. What does regression reflect?
Often it reflects difficulty with higher-level language processing
209. What are some general properties of fixations with English text?

Three things...
1. Typically 200-300 ms in duration (range = 50-500 ms)
2. Visual information is extracted from page only during fixations
3. Approximately 80% of words are fixated in normal text
210. What are some prosperities of non-fixated words?

Three things...
1. Short
2. Highly frequent words
3. Highly predictable words from context
211. What two parameters do eye trackers measure and record?
1. When the eyes move

2. Where the eyes move
212. What do these two parameters provide researchers with?
They provide a complete record of a subject's eye movements during reading
213. What happens to the data taken by eye trackers?
The data is reduced (made manageable) using word-base measures (means)
214. In the following sentence identify where fixation occurs:
"Exercise may spark creative thinking"
Eye movements in reading
A. "Creative" = 179 ms
B. "Spark" = 312 ms
C. "Creative" - 299 ms (doesn't include regression)
D. "Creative" = 487 ms
215. Identify the following:
a. first-fixation duration
b. single-fixation duration
c. gaze duration
d. total viewing time
A. "Creative" = 0.98
B. "Creative" = 0.02
C. "Creative" = 0.24
216. Identify:
a. probability of fixating
b. probability of skipping
c. probability of re-fixating
217. How is reading speed measure?

What does reading speed depend upon?
-Rate is measure in words-per-minute (WPM)

-Rate depends on skill of reader and difficulty of text
218. What is the upper rate on reading speed?
About 400 WPM (with complete comprehension)
219. What constrains rate on reading speed?

Two things...
1. Visual acuity

2. Eye-movement times
220. What happens when reading rates are greater than 400 WPM?
Not comprehending, just skimming
221. Why is reading important?

What is the prominent domain of reading?
-Reading is a way to understand language

-Eye movement is main domain of reading
223. What are some basic language processing effects and what researchers look at them?

Two things...
1. Frequency effects (Just & Carpenter)

2. Predictability effects (Ehrlich & Rayner)
224. What are frequency effects?
High frequency words (e.g "the") are fixated for less and are skipped more often than low frequency words (e.g "ostrich")
225. Describe the two conditions of the experiment to illustrate frequency effects.
-Condition 1 used high frequency words

-Condition 2 used low frequency words
226. What was found in the frequency effect experiment?

Two things...
1. High frequency words fixated for less time

2. More frequent words are better represented in semantic memory and thus have quicker retrieval
227. What are predictability effects?
Predictable words are fixated for less time and are skipped more often than less predictable words
228. What did Rayner et al. find from manipulating predictable and unpredictable words in various sentences?

Two things...
1. In predictable condition, p=.78

2. In unpredictable condition, p <.01 (context word)
229. What happens in a gaze-contingent experiment?
Information on monitor is dependent upon where subject is looking
230. What is a moving-window paradigm?
Window is contingent on where subject is looking
231. Moving-Window Paradigm
233. What is the perceptual span?
Effective visual field during reading
234. What did McConkie and Rayner look at regrading perceptual span?
Wanted to determine what is the size of the perceptual span
235. What was the design of McConke and Rayner's experiment?
-Varied size of moving window: 13,17,21,25,31,37,45, or 100 character spaces
(screen size = 100 spaces)

-Subjects read 500-word passage
236. What were the results of McConkie and Rayner's experiment?
-13 characters (7 character spaces to the right and left of fixation)reduced rate by 60%

-31 characters (15 character spaces to the right of fixation) normal rate

-Subjects in all conditions had normal comprehension
237. What conclusion was drawn from these results?
When there was too few characters to the right, subjects did not get all the information they would normally use in reading
238. What did McConkie and Rayner do in their second experiment?
Varied properties of text:

X's w/ spaces vs X's w/o spaces
239. McConkie and Rayner Second Experiment
240. How did the text differ?

Six ways...
1. X's w/ spaces
2. X's w/o spaces
3. Similar letters, spaces
4. Similar letters, no spaces
5. Dissimilar letters, spaces
6. Dissimilar letters, no spaces
241. What were the results for the X's with spaces vs X's without spaces?

Three things...
1. No spaces: reduced rate for windows < 31 characters
2. Black spaces are used to guide eye movements
3. Space information: extracted up to 15 characters to right of fixation
242. What were the results for similar vs dissimilar letters?

Two things...
1. Different letter shape: reduced reading speed for windows < 21 (interference w/ pattern recognition)

2. Letter shape information: extracted up to 10 character spaces to right of fixation
243. How does perceptual span depend upon density?
-Varies in size, depending upon the "density" of the writing system
-Denser language has smaller perceptual span

Examples: Hebrew < English; Japanese < English
244. How is the perceptual span asymmetric?
Right edge extends further than left edge (McConkie & Rayner)
245. Describe the asymmetry of the perceptual span.

Three points...
-14 characters left + 14 characters right = normal rate

-4 characters left + 14 characters right = normal rate

-14 characters left + 4 characters right = much slower rate
246. How are the left and right edges of the perceptual span defined differently?

Two ways...
1. Left edge = beginning (left edge) of fixated word

2. Right edge = number of visible letters
247. How do we know asymmetry is attention-based and not "hard-wired" (Pollatstek et al.)?

Two points...
1. Extends further to the left for native Israeli speakers reading Hebrew (which is read right to left)

2. For English-Hebrew bilinguals, extends to the right when reading English and extends to the left when reading Hebrew

*influenced by language you're reading
248. What is the boundary paradigm?
Gaze-contingent paradigm

Determine how similarity between preview and post view word influence processing of post view word
249. Boundary Paradgim
When boundary is hit, the pre-target word is changed to the post-target word (boundary can't be seen)
250. What is a fast priming paradigm?

Two things
1. Prime and target are displayed on the same fixation

2. Look info extracted and time course over which info is extracted
253. What are the two types of primes in condition one?
1. Orthographic (spelling is similar)

2. Phonological (rhyme or sound similar)
252. What were the conditions Lee et al. used for the primes?
-Condition 1: orthographic vs phonological

-Condition 2: related vs unrelated
253. What were the prime durations used by Lee et al.?
5 prime durations: 29,32,35,38,&41
254. What were the results from the Lee et al. experiment?

Four things...
1. Orthographic priming: significant across all prime durations
2. Phonological priming: significant w/ 29-, 32-, and 35-ms primes
3. Semantic priming: only significant w/ 32-ms prime
4. Phonological codes activated very early during identification
255. What are other linguistic phenomena

Eight Beefy Chunks...
1. Semantic processing (Morris; Sereno)
2. Repetition priming (Raney & Rayner; Rayner et al.)
3. Morpheme processing (Hyönä & Pollatsek; Pollatsek et al.)
4. Anaphora and co-reference (O’Brien et al.)
5. Lexical ambiguity (Binder & Rayner; Duffy et al.)
6. Phonological ambiguity (Lesch & Pollatsek)
7. Discourse factors and stylistic conventions (Birch & Rayner)
8. Syntactic ambiguity (Frazier & Rayner)
256. What are two theories of eye-movement control?
1. Oculomotor/Global control

2. Processing/Cognitive control (Reichle is here)
257. What is the oculomotor/global control theory?

Three points...
1. Very little (if any) moment-to-moment control of eye movements during reading
2. Fixation durations reflect a global strategy (e.g., fast rate vs. slow rate)
3. Doesn't have to deal with immediate cognitive processing
258. What are three models of oculomotor/global control?
1. Strategy-Tactics (O’Regan, 1992)
2. Word-Targeting (Reilly & O’Regan, 1998)
3. Minimal Control (Suppes, 1994)
259. What is the processing/cognitive control theory?

Three points...
1. Significant moment-to-moment control of eye movements during reading
2. Fixation durations reflect cognitive (linguistic) processing (e.g., word identification)
3. Cognition does influence moment to moment decision of eye movement
260. What are three models of processing/cognitive control?
1. Reader (Just & Carpenter)
2. ASM (Reilly, 1983)
3. Mr. Chips (1997)
261. What are the core assumptions of Reader (Just & Carpenter, 1980)

Two assumptions....
1. Immediacy Hypothesis

2. Eye-Mind Hypothesis
261. What is the immediacy hypothesis?
The eyes do not move from a word until all processing on that word is finished
262. What is the eye-mind hypothesis
Only the word that is being fixated is processed.
263. What are two problem with these two hypotheses?
1. Spillover effects (contradicts immediacy)

2. Parafoveal preview (contradicts eye-mind)
264. What are spillover effects?
Processing difficulty on one word can “spill over,” inflating fixation times on subsequent words
265. What is parafoveal preview?
The word immediately to the right of the fixated word can sometime be identified (e.g., skipping)
266. What are two assumptions of E-Z Reader
(Reichle et al., 1998,1999,2003,2006)
1. Attention is allocated to only one word at a time

2. Decoupling between signal to begin shifting attention and signal to move eyes to next word
267. What are the three basic systems that work together according to E-Z Reader?
1. Word Identification System

2. Visual System

3. Oculomotor System
268. What are the two stages in the word identification system?
Stage 1: Familiarity Check (rapid)

Stage 2: Lexical Access
269. What composes the visual system?

Two things...
1. Early Processing

2. Attention (selection)
270. What makes up the oculomotor system?

Three things...
1. Labile Stage

2. Non-labile stage

3. Saccade generation
271. How many stages does programming have?

Which one can be canceled and why?
-Programming has 2 stages
-Labile stage can be canceled if familiarity check signals movement to next word (how we skip words)
272. The time to complete familiarity check and lexical access is a function of what?

Two things...
1. Words frequency
2. Words predictability
251. Fast Priming Paradign
Lee et al.