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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is optic nerve made up of?
axons of ganglion cells
Where do axons/ optic nerve exit?
optic disc
what is optic chiasm?
part where partial decussation at nasal /temporal retina
Where does optic nerve travel?
opposite r to l, l to right
Where does visual perception take place?
lateral geniculate
What does superior colliculus control?
eye head and neck trunk and tracking
what are the functions of primary visual cortex?
visual discrimination,making shapes,movement, color info, binocular vision,angle, depth and perception
wat is the dorsal stream and where is it located?
The dorsal stream is the :where" pathway also called spatial vision pathway and it is located on the posterior parietal lobe
what is the ventral stream and where is it located
The ventral stream is the "what pathway" and also called Object Pathway. Located in the temporal lobe
what is the grandma cell and where is it located?
The grandma cell is the Gnostic Cell and it is located in the inferior temporal lobe
Define prosopagnosia and where is damage
Prosopagnosia is the inability to recognize faces. the damage is in the ventral stream
define spatial agnosia
the inability to determine shapes/ items with only a partial view. the damage is in the right side of the posterior parietal lobe
define astereoagnosia
inability to detect objects by touch
What part of brain is damaged when there is a perceptive problem integrating sensory informative.
right side of posterior parietal lobe
how is visual cortex organized and what is function?
ocular dominance , orientation columns, blobs color . color, depth, binoular, visual discrimination, make shapes
describe process by which we recognize objects
through increased complexity of synthosisizing info from simple cells to complex cells to hyper complex till triggers gnostic cell
what part of brain is responsible for involuntary movement and orientating
superior and inferior calliculi
where does visual orientation live?
18 and 19
what is the neuromuscular junction.
specialized synapse between nerve and skeletal muscle. This is where acethylcholine is released in response to one pre-synaptic action potential which causes an EPSP in the muscle fiber that is large enough to trigger one action potential
what is end plate
part of the muscle fiber that has acth receptors
how is muscle contraction initiated?
muscle contraction is initiated by release of acetylcholine from the axon
how is muscle contraction initiated?
release of acth from axon terminal of alpha motor neuron,acth produces a large EPSP in the post synaptic membrane due to activation of nicotine ach receptors. membrane contains voltage gated sodioum channel this EPSP is sufficient to evoke action potential
what are 6 types of motor activity?
simple reflexes, postural adjustments, locomotion, sensory orientation, fixed action patterns, and aquired skills.
what is an end platwe potential?
An end palate potential is a graded potential that triggers an action potential which is all or nothing
what are fibrils made up of?
filaments that are proteins made iup of thin and thick filaments that crawl up each other shortening the muscle
what disorder is caused by problem with ACTH
Myaasthania gravis
what function does the golgi tendon perform?
gauges the force generated by a muscle, protecting it from over stretching
what is proprioception?
tells us where the parts of our body are, wheter or not we are moving
What constitures the limbic system?
limbic lobe taht is a group of the cortical area that forms a ring around the brain stem. consists of corpus colloseum, in the cingulate gyrus and the cortex on the medial surface of the temporal lobe called the hippocampus
what is sham rage?
when animal demonstrates all behavioiral manifestations of rage in a situation that doesnt normally provolke anger
what is the Papeaz Circuit?
neurologist james Papeaz theory taht emotion was determined by activity in cingulate cortex , emotion thaought to be governed by the hypthalamus. hippocampus projects to hypothalmus through the bundle of axons called the fornix
what is the Kluver Bucy syndrome?
after surgical removal of temporal lobes: see psyhic blindness (don't recognize objects,oral tendencies, putting every thing in mouth, hypermetamorphosis, altered sexual behaior, emotional changes, decrease in fear , flattened emotions.
what is transduction
taking light energy turning it into an action potential, accomplishew dby sensory receptors
what is resting potential of sensory receptors
70 nmv
what happens when sensory receptor is stimulated?
produce graded potential known as receptor potential than summate at action hillock and trigger action potential. receptor potentials become IPSP/EPSP
define habituation
learning to ignore a stimulus
what is difference between adaptation and habituation?
adaptation is constant,habituation is intermittent
name two type of coding?
anatomical (spatial) and functional (temporal
define optical
optics is the use of eye to detect light waves reflected off of objects d
what is lens made up of?
fibrous tissue
myopia
near sightness, cornea is mis-shaped actsa like a lens taht is bulging , light focuses on cornea, ends up over focusing
presbyopia
far sightedness, lens of eye loses flexibility lens can't accomodate , as stiffens can't accomiodate wont bend enough focus point behind the retina
how do you correct myopia
want a concave lens to scatter the light
how do corrwect presbyopia?
want a convex lens
what is an astigmatism?
shape of the cornea is uneven
what are the visual receptors?
rods and cones
which allow you to see in the dark?
Rods
which do you need for visual acuity?
cones to see sharply and crisply
what are functions of cones?
phototopic, color and resolution, chromatic
rods are scotopic and achromatic (T/F)
true
describe layers of retina cells
rods and cones are connected longitudinally, first layer is bipolar cells, then ganglion cells, , horizontal cells between rods cones and bipolar cells sends info horizontally, laterally , amacrine cells wedged between bipolar cells and ganglion cells