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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
acquisition
the registration of inputs in sensory buffers and sensory analysis stages
amnesia
the loss of memory
anterograde amnesia
the loss of ability to form new memories
consolidation
the process by which memory representations become stronger over time. Consolidation is believed to include changes in the brain system participating in the storage of information
declarative memory
knowledge to which we have conscious access, including personal and world knowledge (events and facts). the term declarative signals the idea that declarations can be made about this knowledge, and that for the most part, we are aware that we posses the information.
distributed representation
the idea that information may be stored in the large population of neurons located in relatively widespread regions of the brain. This idea is in contrast to the idea that the representations of some items in memory are stored in discrete, highly localized set of neurons
encoding
the processing of incoming information to be stored. Encoding consists of two stages: acquisition and consolidation
familiarity
a memory that does not contain episodic awareness of the prior event but is recognized by the feeling that the item was seen before--that is, by its feeling similar
Hebbian learning
the theory that, if a weak and a strong input act on a cell at the same time, the weak synapse becomes stronger. The theory is named for Donald Hebb, who postulated this mechanism as a means for the connectional strength between neurons to change in order to store information
long-term memory
the retention of information over the long-term, from hours to days and years. Compare sensory memory and short-term memory
learning
the process of acquiring new information
memory
the persistance of learning in a state that can be revealed later
nondeclarative memory
knowledge to which we typically have no conscious access, such as motor and cognitive skills (procedural knowledge). For example, the ability to ride a bicycle is a nondeclarative form of knowledge. Although we can describe the action itself, the actual information one needs to ride a bicycle is not easy to describe. Compare declarative memory
perceptual representation system (PRS)
a form of nondeclarative memory, acting within the perceptual system, in which the structure and form of objects and words can be primed by prior experience and can be revealed later through implicit memory tests
procedural memory
a form of nondeclarative memory that involves the learning of a variaty of motor skills (e.g. knowledge of how to ride a bike) and cognitive skills (e.g. knowledge of how to read)
retrieval
the utilization of stored information to create a conscious representation or to execute a learned behavior like a motor act. Compare encoding
retrograde amnesia
the loss of memory for events that happened in the past. Compare anterograde amnesia

S1 - see primary somatosensory cortex
S2 - see secondary somatosensory cortex
sensory memory
the short-lived retention of sensory information., measurable in milliseconds to seconds, as when we recover what was said to us a moment before when we were not paying close attention to the speaker. sensory memory for audition is called echoic memory, sensory memory for vision is called iconic memory. Compare short term memory and long-term memory
short-term memory
the retention of information over seconds to minutes
storage
the result of the acquisition and consolidation of information,which create and maintain, respectively, a permanent record

acquisition --> create
consolidation --> maintain
working memory
transient representations of task-relevant information. These representations may be related to information that has just been activated from long-term memory or something recently experienced. Representations in working memory guide behavior in the present, constituting what has been call, "the blackboard of the mind." see also short-term memory