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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
With regard to the brain, what is the view held by phrenologists?
That function is localized; brain is organized into specific functions
Referring to Question 1, this is also known as a ____ view.
What is a lesion in the brain?
An injury in the brain that often leads to the discovery of what was the function of that part of the brain.
Wernicke's Area
You are able to produce language but not comprehend it.
Where is Wernicke's Area located?
Broca's Area
You are able to comprehend language but not produce it. Ex. tan...tan...tan
Where is Broca's Area located?
What is empiricism?
The idea that all knowledge comes from sensory experience.
What is behaviorism?
The role of environmental forces on producing behavior is emphasized.
Tell me something about Noam Chomsky.
He thought language was innate rather than learned. He was against associationism.
What is a neuron?
A class of cell in the nervous system. It is the basic signaling unit.
What does a neuron typically consist of?
Dendrites, soma, axon, and terminal buttons.
Which part of a neuron typically releases neurotransmitters?
Terminal Buttons.
What is a nuerotransmitter?
The chemical substances that transmit signals between nuerons at chemical synapses.
What is myelin and what function does it serve?
A fatty substance that surrounds the axons of many neurons. It porvides insulation around axon that changes the way intacellular currents flow in axons.
What is an ion channel?
Channels that span the membrane of neurons, creating a bridge to get ions in and out.
Describe the properties of a neuron when it is in a resting state.
At rest, the RMP is at -70mV relative to the outside, the voltage difference across the membrane determienes the ability to fire action potential.
Describe the sequence of events involved in synaptic transmission.
When the action potential invades the axon terminals, it causes voltage-gated Ca2+ channels to open: (1)which triggers vesicles to bind to presynaptic membrane, (2) neurotransmitter is released into the synaptic cleft by exocytosis and diffuses across the cleft, (3) Binding of the neurotransmitter to receptor molecules in post synaptic membrane completes process of transmission.
What is neuroanatomy?
The study of the nervous system's structure, concerned with identifying parts of the nervous system and how the parts are connected.
How would we study gross neuroanatomy (meaning) how do we look at structure?
Until recently, by analyzing the brain outside the skull. Now through neuroimaging.
Name the four lobes and describe their location.
Frontal-rostral(anterior), Parietal-dorsal(superior), Temporal-ventral(inferior), Occipital-caudal(posterior)
What are the gyri and sulci?
Gyri-mountains of folds (brain matter)
Sulci- gaps or valleys between brain matter
What are the two main projection routes from the primary visual cortex to the extrastriate cortex?
V1 and the lateral geniculate nucleus
What region of the brain participates in emotional processing, learning and memory?
The limbic system.
Where is the central sulcus located?
In between the frontal and parietal lobes.
What is a lesion?
A damage that eliminates the function provided by the lesioned structure.
Name the two different types of imaging that can be done (broad classes).
Starting with structura-what methods are used?
CAT scans and MRI.
What is a CAT scan?
Computed Tomography(1983)-important for structural imaging, advance version of an x-ray, allows for reconstruction of 3D space.
What is MRI?
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (1992)- exploits the magnetic properties of organic tissue.
What are the advantages of MRI over CAT?
They give a much clearer image of the brain than is possible with CAT scans. It is easier to see individual sulci and gyri of the cerebral cortex.
What method is used to create a virtual lesion?
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
What are the functional imaging methods?
EEG(1929), ERP, MEG(1969), PET(1980), fMRI(1992)
How does EEG work?
Electroencephalography-provides recording of overall brain activity. Detects abnormalities in brain function. Electrodes sit in surface of skin.
What is an ERP and how does it work?
Event Related Potential- tiny signal embeded in ongoing EEG, provides precies temporal record of underlying neural ctivity. [sensory, motor,and/or cognitive processing]
What is MEG and how does it work?
Magnetoencephalography- synaptic activation results in intracellular current flows generating MEG.
What is PET and how does it work?
Positron Emission Tomography - detects changes in metabolism or blood flow in the brain while subject engages in cognitive task.
What is fMRI and how does it work?
Funcitonal Magnetic Resonance Imaging - indirectly measures neuronal activity. Radio waves make the protons in hydrogen atoms oscillate, and a detector measures local energy fields that are emitted as the protons return to the orientation of the external magnetic field.
What is the difference between spatial and temporal resolution?
Temporal - time scale over which a particular measurment is obtained
Spatial - localization capabilities of the methods.
What does the term 'double dissociation' refer to?
An experiment in which one patient group shows impairment on one task and the other group shows impairment on the other task [provides stronger evidence for selctive impairments]
90% of the optic fibers terminate in _____?
Lateral Geniculate Nucleus
There are another two names for V1, what are they?
Area 17, primary visual cortex.
What is the difference between the feature search and the conjunction search tasks?
Feature - target has a unique feature condition
Conjuntion - target shares characteristics with distracters (shape, color, etc.)
Which task is the fastest?
What does the Ponzo illusion tell us about the function of the visual system?
Sometimes what we percieve is not the real thing.
What is achromatopsia?
Disorders of color perception that arise from disturbances of the central nervous system.