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177 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Adult ADHD
• Persistence from childhood:_____ of children persist
5 to 66%
Prevalence:
3 to 5%
• Similarity to childhood profile:
demographic,
psychosocial, psychiatric and cognitive features
what kind of genes you have
• Genotype:
Variants of genes are known as
alleles
The dopamine receptor gene can have
different forms (alleles)
• Having a diff allele could lead to more or less effect of
dopamine release
on the postsynaptic cell
Which particular dopamine receptors you have is your
phenotype
your body type given your genes
- Dopamine receptor type
- Dopamine transporter type
- Eye color
- Height
- Cortical thickness
- Cortical gyral folding patter
phenotype
In much of medicine, you can measure the phenotype
directly
The problem for most psychiatric conditions such as
ADHD is there’s
no direct probe
Instead, we have _______ (which are subjectively
observed and probably not closely related to the
phenotype, I.e. brain systems)
symptoms
How you perform on various psychological (cognitive)
tests will show variation and is a kind of
phenotype
• This variation is partly related to how you are made up
(your genes and your brain system) - at least better than
symptoms are
• So we can use ______as the next best
thing
cognitive phenotypes
• _______ does seem changed in ADHD
Executive Function
-executive function
-State regulation:
arousal/activation
-reward processing
-time perception
Candidate cognitive phenotypes for ADHD
Executive Function “Impairments” in
ADHD
Repsonse prevention stop task
For each subject, one can measure the speed
of inhibition:
Stop Signal Reaction Time
SSRT
Measuring the speed of inhibition:
SSRT
The speed of inhibition
(SSRT) could be a nice
cognitive phenotype
because it:
a) relates to the level of
impulsivity
b) relates nicely to the
brain
Syndrome
Symptoms
Cognitive Phenotypes
Genes
Proteins
Neural System Models
Cellular System Models &
Signalling Pathways
Attention Deficit/
Hyperactivity Disorder
Impulsive Symptoms
“blurts out answers”, “difficulty taking
turn”, “talks excessively”
Level 7
Level 6
Level 5
Level 1
Level 2
Level 4
Level 3
Response Inhibition
(Stop Task)
Stopping/impulsivity correlation
___, but not ___, frontal damage
impairs SSRT
Right
left
memory
maintenance/monitoring
DLFPC
conflict monitoring
Dorsomedial
decision-making
Orbital (ventromedial)
inhibition
Ventrolateral
higher-level goals
Anterior frontal
• Structural MRI can
measure cortical
density/thickness in each
subject
• Compare group of
adolescents with ADHD
diagnosis vs group of age
and IQ-matched controls
• Do t-test at each voxel to
find significant differences
Right frontal density is different in
ADHD vs controls
Gray matter
ADHD __ controls
<
Right frontal density is
different
unaffected siblings
Gray matter
Unaffect. Sibs ___ controls
<
• A structural MRI study compared
children with ADHD diagnosis, their
siblings with no ADHD diagnosis
and age and IQ-matched controls
• Right frontal cortical
density/thickness reduced in
unaffected siblings vs controls
• ADHD is heritable? Effect in
families even with no manifest
syndrome?
Right frontal density is different in
unaffected siblings
• Functional MRI done for stop
signal test in kids with ADHD vs
controls
• fMRI signal computed at all voxels
for controls and for ADHD groups
• Independent samples t-test
performed at each voxel
Right frontal hypofunction in ADHD
Dopamine (and other neurotransmitters)
released from
brainstem and midbrain
Neurotransmission allows distant and diverse brain
regions to be modulated by global levels of
arousal,
vigilance and attention
relates to pleasure, motivation, arousal … it
may increase the signal-to-noise processing of cortical
networks
Dopamine
Dopamine levels (and those of other neurotransmitter
systems) can be altered...
pharmacologically
SSRT in ADHD...
speeded (improved) by Ritalin
• Ritalin (Methylphenidate)
affects
dopamine,
noradrenaline, serotonin,
etc.
Used clinically for treating
ADHD
The main effect in ADHD
may be via
dopamine and
noradrenaline
• Also speeds ___in
ADHD
SSRT
• The dopamine receptor is a
protein
• There are dopamine transporters too
• And enzymes that breakdown
dopamine
Twin studies can be used to
estimate ___in ADHD
heritability
Gene Association Studies
• There is some evidence that the type of
allele people have for the _______
predicts whether or not they have a
diagnosis of ADHD
DRD4 gene
Historical ___ of emotion research in cognitive
psychology
neglect
Emotions are very important for __________ - so emotion
research often goes together with _______
sociality
social psychology
Hence ___research has been key
face
Based on ethnographic
research, ____
concluded there are ___ basic
types
Paul Ekman
six
types of emotion
– Happy, sad, disgust, anger,
fear and surprise
Ekman:
face muscle classification
and basic types of emotions
There are many ______of
emotion, no true one
typologies
Emotions can alternatively be
classified based on degree of
__or ______ or___
arousal or valence Or intensity
Complex emotions may differ
from the simple ones you can
_____on a face
read
May involve
situation: e.g. embarassment
beliefs/desires,
representing another person’s
thoughts, being aware of cultural
“Our natural way of thinking about
these standard emotions is that
the mental perception of some
fact excites the mental affection
called the emotion, and that this
latter state of mind gives rise to
the bodily expression …
… My thesis on the contrary is that
the bodily changes follow directly
the PERCEPTION of the exciting
fact, and that our feeling of the
same changes as they occur IS
the emotion” [William James]
i.e. when you feel your body
changing THEN you experience
the emotion
James-Lange theory
Problems with the James-Lange
theory
• Artificial production of visceral
changes produces no emotion
• Emotions still visible in patients
who lack some internal organs
• Deaffarented human and nonhuman
animals still show
emotions
• Visceral reactions are slow -
cannot explain instantaneous
character of, e.g. fear
• So …. It’s not entirely plausible
that the body change precedes
the emotion
• But James-Lange are right that
body states are an important part
of what constitutes emotion …
Enter the limbic circuit (Papez)
• Consists of cingulate,
hypothalamus, thalamus, basal
ganglia, hippocampus …. etc.
• Comes from a more primitive
type of cortex (different from
neocortex, i.e. cerebral
hemispheres)
• Phylogenetically older structures
• Common in nonmammalian
species (e.g reptiles or
amphibians)
Emotions and the body response
• Emotions such as fear are present even in phylogenetically
primitive species
• “Emotional” processing leads to a widespread, full body, stress
response via the endocrine system
The Papez Circuit: Cingulate
• Cingulate gets output from anterior thalamus
• Major interface between limbic, motor and
cognitive areas
• Plays important role in cognitive control
(including over emotion?)
major sensory input to brain (sound, vision, touch …)
Thalamus:
relay between nervous and endocrine systems
Hypothalamus:
hormonal system (secreted into bloodstream)
Endocrine:
Papez circuit posits “internal circuits”
• Papez thought these regions work
together to make up the “emotional
brain”
• Big development in emotion research
because posits an internal circuit:
- i.e. not just a circuit between
sensory and motor systems
- but a circuit from sensory to
internal milieu (memory, body
state, endocrine, hormones) then
to motor system
- so “feelings” can influence the
decision, and body state is
connected with this over time - see
Somatic Marker Hypothesis
Prefrontal cortex (e.g. OFC) is intimately wired up with the
limbic (emotion processing) areas of the brain -
Thus the “emotional” input enters into the
deliberative process
Problems with the Papez circuit
• Regions of the system, such as
hippocampus, not specific for
emotion (as we have seen)
• Some emotions involve different
(and specific) circuitry, e.g.
disgust
• Still, the Papez circuit implicated
parts of the limbic system in
emotion research - which is
important
• Modern theories of emotion, e.g.
that of LeDoux, focus on more
specific circuitry
Next time …. the amygdala
Emotions, stress and the body
• Emotions such as fear are present even in phylogenetically
primitive species
• “Emotional” processing leads to a widespread, full body, stress
response via the endocrine system
Problems with the James-Lange
theory
• Artificial production of visceral changes produces no emotion
• Emotions still visible in patients who lack some internal organs
• Deaffarented human and non-human animals still show emotions
• Visceral reactions are slow - cannot explain instantaneous character
of, e.g. fear
• So …. It’s not entirely plausible that the body change precedes the
emotion
• But body-states/arousal are still an important part of emotion ….
directs sensory info to
streams of “thinking” and “feeling”
Thalamus:
representations of body state
Sensory cortex:
• Body representations in:
- Primary somatosensory cortex (parietal lobe) - SI
- Insular cortex - SII
Papez circuit includes
limbic system
Papez circuit includes limbic system
• Consists of cingulate,
hypothalamus, thalamus,
hippocampus …. etc.
• Comes from a more primitive
type of cortex (different from
neocortex, i.e. cerebral
hemispheres)
• Phylogenetically older structures
• Common in nonmammalian
species (e.g reptiles or
amphibians)
The hypothalamus is an input to the
endocrine and autonomic systems
• The hypothalamus is a relay between
the nervous and endocrine systems
• The endocrine system constitutes
hormones such as oxytocin, adrenaline
and progesterone which are released
into bloodstream
• The hypothalamus thus regulates
body temperature, hunger and thirst
• It also outputs to the autonomic
nervous system
The hypothalamus is an input to the
endocrine and autonomic systems
• The hypothalamus is a relay between
the nervous and endocrine systems
• The endocrine system constitutes
hormones such as oxytocin, adrenaline
and progesterone which are released
into bloodstream
• The hypothalamus thus regulates
body temperature, hunger and thirst
• It also outputs to the autonomic
nervous system
The hypothalamus is an input to the
endocrine and autonomic systems
The hypothalamus is an input to the
endocrine and autonomic systems
Autonomic nervous system
• Hypothalamic output
to ANS quickly
controls heart rate,
sweating etc via
sympathetic branch
• Neurons originating
in the brain release
neurotransmitters
(e.g. noradrenaline)
onto receptors in
multiple body organs
• These can
“excite” or “quiet”
body responses
• Papez thought these regions work
together to make up the “emotional
brain”
• Emotional experiences are supposed
to happen when cingulate cortex
integrates the “stream of thought” and
the “stream of feeling”; i.e. input from
sensory cortex and hypothalamus
• Outputs from cingulate cortex to
hippocampus and then hypothalamus
allow thoughts in the cerebral cortex to
control emotional/body responses
• So “feelings” or “memories of
feelings” (see Somatic Marker
Hypothesis) can influence decisions
and actions
Papez circuit is an internal loop
Papez circuit lacks
specificity
• Regions of the system, such as hippocampus, not specific for
emotion
Modern theories of emotion focus on more specific circuitry, in particular
the ___- important for fear and threat in particular
amygdala
Other emotions also involve different (and specific) circuitry, e.g. disgust
(represented in insula cortex)
• Papez circuit has limited/schematic role for limbic system - which is in
reality much more
complex
Overall, the Papez circuit helped emotion research by introducing
neurobiological detail and implicating the limbic system in emotion
research - which is important. Also reinforces James-Lange notion of the
importance of body state - we’ll see more of this next lecture
The Amygdala is part of the
MTL
Amygdala damage specifically
affects
fear and anger
• Patient DR could recognize _____, but not the emotion (especially
not fear)
• This also applied in the vocal domain: so not ____ specific, but
really about emotion
faces
modality
Kluver-Bucy Syndrome
• Emotional Blunting: Subjects displays flat affect and may not respond
appropriately to stimuli. Following bilateral amygdala lesions,
previously fierce monkeys will approach fear-inducing stimuli with no
display of anger or fear.
• Hyperphagia: Patients with Kluver-Bucy often suffer from extreme
weight gain without a strictly monitored diet. This is likely for the
purpose of oral stimulation or exploration and not indicative of a
satiety disorder. There is a strong tendency for those with Kluver-Bucy
to compulsively place inedible objects in their mouths.
• Inappropriate Sexual Behavior: Human subjects with Kluver-Bucy may
fail to publicly observe social sexual morays and there may be an
increase in their sexual activity. Monkeys with bilateral amygdala
lesions demonstrate atypical sex behaviors, mounting inanimate
objects and members of the same sex.
• Visual Agnosia: Subjects with Kluver-Bucy suffer from "psychic
blindness," i. e. an inability to visually recognize some objects. Oral
compulsions may provide an alternate means of object identification
• Much of this could be explained by objects losing their learned
emotional value (a function of the amygdala)
• But wider damage to temporal lobe produces visual agnosia
Subjects displays flat affect and may not respond
appropriately to stimuli. Following bilateral amygdala lesions,
previously fierce monkeys will approach fear-inducing stimuli with no
display of anger or fear.
Emotional Blunting:
Patients with Kluver-Bucy often suffer from extreme
weight gain without a strictly monitored diet. This is likely for the
purpose of oral stimulation or exploration and not indicative of a
satiety disorder. There is a strong tendency for those with Kluver-Bucy
to compulsively place inedible objects in their mouths.
Hyperphagia:
Human subjects with Kluver-Bucy may
fail to publicly observe social sexual morays and there may be an
increase in their sexual activity. Monkeys with bilateral amygdala
lesions demonstrate atypical sex behaviors, mounting inanimate
objects and members of the same sex.
Inappropriate Sexual Behavior:
Subjects with Kluver-Bucy suffer from "psychic
blindness," i. e. an inability to visually recognize some objects. Oral
compulsions may provide an alternate means of object identification
Visual Agnosia:
• Much of this could be explained by objects losing their learned____
• But wider damage to temporal lobe produces visual ______
emotional value (a function of the amygdala)
agnosia
The amygdala plays a special role in
threat detection
• Threat detection is
_____important
evolutionarily
• Threats can be detected very
fast (even subliminally) via the
_____ but slower
responses also occur via the
_____
“low road”,
“high road”
“Low road” amygdala activation
in blindsight patient
• Patient has damage to left V1; hence “blind” in right visual field
• Still, threatening stimuli presented in that field can lead to an
amygdala response
• Facial expressions of
disgust activate ________ a gustatory
somatosensory region
insula cortex -
• May map body states
to “feelings” of
selfawareness
and urges
• Some patients with
_________ are
impaired at recognizing
sadness
amygdala damage
• Happiness seems
more ________
neurally
distributed
___damage removes urge to
smoke
Insula
James-Lange theory not strictly
correct
• Important clue of relation between emotion and body state came from
Papez circuit
- introduces limbic system
- spells out endocrine basis of stress response
• Papez circuit is not specific enough about
emotion circuitry
There is specialized emotion circuitry in the brain:
e.g. amygdala
• Emotion can be processed with and without
awareness
• Snakes, spiders, thunder, etc.
are likely to be
“hard-wired” fear
responses in the brain, as part
of our evolutionary history
But other objects/sounds/smells can
come to elicit emotions such as fear,
through ___________
classical conditioning
• Most experiments have used rodents, but
the psychological and neural mechanisms
are
highly conserved across species
Conditioned fear engages
HPA and
Amydala
• After just a few pairings the tone alone becomes the ____, and can
elicit the autonomic/endocrine and behavioral response of fear
CS
Emotional situations involve complex
interactions between neurohormonal
systems that are co-ordinated by the______
HPA axis
• E.g. a stressful stimulus is detected
by brain, causing adrenaline to be
released in the periphery which then
stimulates the vagal nerve (coming up
spinal cord) which projects to the
amydala
• Blocking this incoming pathway..
blocks the memory-enhancing effects
of adrenaline
• This picture is roughly
consistent with Papez circuit
(engaging thalamus,
hypothalamus and limbic areas)
• But ….
more detailed and accurate
in light of modern findings
• After just a few pairings the
tone alone becomes the CS, and can
elicit the autonomic/endocrine and behavioral response of fear
In vitro signsl of neurophysiological
consolidation:
Long-term Potentiation
• We saw that when an input
nerve cell was stimulated
electrically with a brief highfrequency
tetanus (1 sec, 100
Hz), there was an increase in
EPSP lasting hours
• This is an in vitro experiment
• This mechanism of LTP likely
underlies
fear memory
formation in the amygdala too
• And emotional aspects of a
stimulus also faciliate this
process in the wider MTL … as
we will see
Amydala neurons ______
during conditioning
tone
• Once the tone has become the
CS there is a corresponding
increase in firing rate of amydala
cells to tone alone
increase firing rate
• Postsynaptic potentials lead, within seconds, minutes and
hours to
changes to the synapse
• Gene transcription produces new proteins which add cell
structure in form of synaptic buttons
• This is the cellular basis of learning in amydala and
hippocampus
In humans …..
• Meta-analysis of multiple
fMRI studies
• Reveals activation of
___________during
conditioned fear acquisition
• These activations
represent brain responses
to conditioned stimulus
• Consistent with picture
from rodents and broadly
with the Papez circuit
thalamo-amygdalocingulate
network
How could fear be controlled?
• VMPFC (ventromedial
prefrontal cortex) has inhibitory
projections (GABAergic) onto
amygdala
• Fear is generated in
amygdala to conditioned tone,
and expressed behaviorally
• Could VMPFC suppress the
fear response via the top-down
projection?
activates when fear
memory is extinguished
VMPFC
• In humans, this could be one form of
executive function!
Dissociable contributions of amygdala
and hippocampus for
emotional memory
• Reasons exist to think
that ________
play different roles in
emotional memory than
the amydala
hippocampus (and
parahippocampal areas)
Dissociable contributions of amygdala
and MTL to conditioned fear learning
• Controls and patients SM and
WC undergo conditioning with
visual as well as auditory stimuli
• Skin conductance response
(SCR) measured during
conditioning
• WC (hippocampal damage)
shows normal SCR, WC (amydala
damage) shows abnormal SCR
• By contrast, WC has intact
declarative memory of the testing
episode while SM does not
• Double dissociation!
Involves “high-road” or slower pathway

• A form of long-term memory
consolidation, like semantic or
episodic memory
• Except now the amydala/HPA is
implicated …
• Retina -> thalamus -> V1,V2,V3,etc -
> lateral temporal lobe ->
amygdala/HPA -> medial temporal
lobe -> cortical networks
How memories may be made:
pathways into and out of the MTL
• For example, for information in parietal (P)
and temporal (TE) areas, which are
influenced by the frontal cortex (FC), to
develop into stable long-term memory:
- neural activity must occur at the time of
learning along projections from these
areas to the MTL
- first to parahipp, perirhinal cortex and
entorhinal cortex
- then through several states of
hippocampus and back to Parietal and
Temporal areas
Emotional memories also formed via
this route - buy amydala “colors” them
Role of parahippocampal areas in encoding
new information confirmed with fMRI
• We saw before:
• Scan people while they
learn new material (e.g.
complex color
photographs)
• Activation at time of
scanning predicts what is
subsequently
remembered - the Dm
effect
Encoding emotional memories
• Subsequent memory (Dm)
effects assessed for:
-high arousal, negative
valence
-Low arousal, negative
valence (valence only)
- neutral
• Dm effect significant in
amydala for arousal condition
• Dm effect significant for all
conditions in hippocampus
• Dm effect greater in anterior
hippocampus for arousal
condition - consistent with
greater connectivity between
amydala and anterior
hippocampus
Correlated changes in amygdala and
hippocampal/entorhinal areas during
encoding of emotional material
• Measure brain signals for items that are subsequently remembered vs.
subsequently forgotten in arousal and neutral conditions
• Arousal-based Dm effects are correlated across individuals while neutral
effects are not
• Suggests that amydala works with other MTL areas for emotional memory
Conditioned fear learning via
thalamus/amygdala/HPA axis
Synaptic changes occur in
amydala
Conditioned fear can be
extinguished via
inhibitory inputs
from prefrontal cortex to amydala
• Hippocampus/parahippocampus is
sensitive to the _______aspects
of emotional memories
declarative
• The amydala works together with
the _______(especially
anterior part) to form declarative
memories - arousal thus strongly
“colors” the memory, making it an
enduring one.
hippocampus
Role of body states 1: James-Lange
• We saw that James-
Lange had it wrong that
body state must precede
feeling
Role of body states 2 - Papez
• Papez circuit is more
nuanced - emotion
(feeling) is a complex
interaction of cognitive
and body states
• But a bit vague …
Role of body states 3 - HPA axis and
conditioned fear learning
• Once the tone has become the CS there is a
corresponding increase in firing rate of amydala
cells to tone alone
• Changes to behavior and body state constitute
the learning and accompany the CS until
extinguished
• How might this work?
• E.g. a stressful stimulus is detected by the
brain ->
sensory periphery - thalamus -
amydala
• causes adrenaline to be released in the
periphery (i.e. body) which then stimulates
the ________ (coming up spinal cord)
which projects back to the amydala
vagal nerve
Blocking this ______blocks the
memory-enhancing effects of adrenaline
incoming pathway
e.g. it has been shown that blocking this
incoming body pathway prevents
conditioned fear acquisition
So body states are an important part of
______ - even if they probably do
not precede the experience (feeling)
emotion learning
Role of body states 4 - HPA axis and
declarative memory formation
• Amydala-hippocampal interaction also
important for laying down declarative
(emotional) memories
• Likely that amygdala-HPA axis participates,
as before, but the consolidation is in the
hippocampus (binding the episode) rather
than amygdala only
• Suggests that “body state” could
become represented in the brain - I.e. you
don’t need to have actual body changes
every time you recall an emotional episode -
the body state is part of your cognition
• This is the Somatic Marker Hypothesis
Could explain Phineas Gage’s problem
Selective damage to orbital frontal
cortex left him with profound
problems with decision-making,
especially involving risk and social
situations
• But remainder of his cognition,
memory etc. intact
How skin conductance is used to evaluate
the somatic marker hypothesis
• Some patients with brain
damage show less (or no) Skin
Conductance Response to
emotional stimuli
• This suggests that the
damaged region can’t integrate
the “body signals” or “body
memories”
Participants presented with 4
virtual decks of cards on
computer screen. They are told
that each time they choose a
card they will win some game
money. Every so often,
however, choosing a card
causes them to lose some
money. The goal of the game
is to win as much money as
possible. Every card drawn will
earn the participant a reward
($100 for Decks A and B; $50
for Decks C and D).
Occasionally, a card will also
have a penalty (A and B have a
total penalty of $1250 for every
ten cards; C and D have a total
penalty of $250 for every ten
cards).
Thus, A and B are "bad decks", and C
and D are "good decks", because Decks
A or B will lead to losses over the long run,
and Decks C or D will lead to gains. Deck
A differs from B and Deck C differs from D
in the number of trials over which the
losses are distributed: A and C have five
smaller loss cards for every ten cards; B
and D have one larger loss card for every
ten cards.
The Iowa Gambling task - Bechara et al
• Healthy participants sample cards from
each deck, and after about 40 or 50
selections stick to good decks.
• Patients with___
dysfunction continue to _________with the
bad decks sometimes even though they know
that they are losing money overall.
• Concurrent measurement of ___shows that healthy
participants show a "stress" reaction to
hovering over the bad decks after only 10
trials, long before conscious sensation that
the decks are bad.
• Patients with OFC dysfunction don!t seem
to develop this physiological reaction to
impending punishment.
• Bechara and his colleagues explain this in
terms of the somatic marker hypothesis
orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)
perseverate
skin conductance response
Evaluating the Iowa Gambling Task
• The IGT and the findings by Bechara et al, generated an
enormous amount of interest
• Yet the IGT has been criticized on various grounds:
- is people!s knowledge of the good and bad decks really
unconscious?
- if not, the difference between patients and controls may
have to do with access to this knowledge rather than
somatic markers
- the SCR results have not always been replicated
• Emotional responses are acquired/learned along
with ___
body state changes
• Body state changes come to be represented in the
brain itself
• Memory of emotion, or emotion expression or
experiencing emotion can thus operate
independently of the body
states/processes that prepare the orgamism for certain behaviours particularly those with survival value
emotion
situations in which a particular emotion occurs frequently or continuously
mood
part of the limbic system; implicated in detecting fearful stimuli
amygdala
in monkeys after bilateral amygdala and temporal lesions, an unfusual tameness and emotional blunting, a tendency to examine objects with the mouth and dietary changes
kluver- bucy syndrome
a pathological fear of certain stimuli that is out of proportion to the acutal threat posed
phobia
a region of cortex buried beneath the temporal lobes; contains secondary somatosensory regions involved in body perception and the primary gustatory cortex; responds to disgust
insula
a stimulus that increases or decreases a particular pattern of behavior
reinforcer
the emotional response of another person may lead to avoidance or interaction with previously neutral stimulus
social referencing
a highly durable avoidance of food that has previusly been associated with sickness
conditioned taste aversion
wrinkles around eyes associated with a sincere smile
duchenne lines
changes in electrical conductivity on a person's skin, triggered by certain stimuli (eg emotional or familar stimuli)
skin conductiance response (SCR)
the self perception of bodily changes produces emotional experience
james lange theory
links btw previous situations stored throughout the cortex and the feeling of those situations stored in regions of the brain dedicated to emotion an the representaiton of the body
somatic markers
the ability to stop responding to previously rewarded stimulus that is no longer rewarded
reveral learning
people report that thier aquaintances have been replaced by body doubles
capgras syndrome
a genetic disorder in which there is whole or partial deletion of one X chromosome
turner's syndrome
the ability to appreciate others' points of view and share their expereinces
empathy
the theory that perceiving the actions and emotional expressions of others uses the same neural and cognitive resources that are used for producing actions and emtional expressions in oneself
simulation theory
ability to represent the metnal states of others
theory of mind
a belief that differs from one's own belief and that differs from the true state of the world
false belief
a situation in which outward behavior deliberately contradicts inner knowledge and beliefs
deception
the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly resricted reperatorire of activities and interests
autism
autism with no significant delay in early language and cognitive development
aspergers syndrome
irresponsible and unreliable behavior that is not personally advantageous; an inablity to form lasting commitments or relationships, egocentric thinking, marked degree of impulsivity
sociopathy