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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
These disorders are presumed to be caused by transient or permanent dysfunctions of the brain,
affecting the thinking process, memory and other brain functions.
Cognitive disorders
In ___they were discussed under organic mental
syndromes and organic disorders.
_________tests asses functions like memory and manual dexterity (hand-eye
coordination).___ tests permit direct monitoring of the brain. They include the __, the
__ and the __ scan.
The Assesment of Brain Damage.
Neuropsychological ;Neurological
The __ and __ scans and __ help determine the location and extent of brain damage.
___ is defined as a lesion in a specific area of the brain which disrupts other intact ares.
caused by something within the person such as insufficient blood
oxygen, which destroys brain cells.
Endogenous brain damage
brain damage is caused by an external factor such as a blow to the head.
is rather generalized and widespread.
Diffuse damage
brain damage is localized.
brain disorder is temporary and reversible.
includes permanent and irreversible brain damage
Chronic brain disorder
People within no brain damage may be diagnosed having cognitive disorder, for example in the
case of depression.
diagnostic problems
Neurological tests cannot differentiate between brain damaged and
schizophrenic patients. The elderly are vulnerable to being inaccurately diagnosed as brain
diagnostic problems
Symptoms include impairment of memory and decline of cognitive functioning. There is gradual
onset and continuing cognitive decline. ____ disease accounts for most of dementia in the
elderly. It involves deterioration of brain tissues and cells.
Dementia, alsheimer's
Symptoms included impairment in consciousness and disorientation. Thinking becomes
disorganized. ____ can be caused by general medical conditions, substance abuse and high
fevers due to viral infection of the brain. (but no loss of brain cells in delirium)
Symptoms include memory impairment in learning new information or remembering past events.
The most common cause is __ ___.
Amnestic disorders;
Wernicke's Encephalapathy
A ___ is a physical wound or injury to the brain. The greater the tissue damage, the more
impaired the functioning will be.
caused by a blow
shift in the brain
tearing of the brain
headaches, dizziness, nausea, and personality changes
major symptoms of brain tumors
A sudden stop of blood flow to a part of the brain due to a _____ can cause a stroke. Stroke is the___ major cause of death in the United
States. It also can be caused by arteriosclerosis (hardening of the arteries).
breakage or blockage of a
blood vessel; third
_____caused by brain cell deterioration due to aging, which causes memory loss.
Senile Dementia
Alzheimer's disease is the fourth leading cause of death in the U.S. It causes _____ of the brain. The etiology is unknown. Reduced level of ___ in the brain, exposure to aluminum, infections, etc., may be among causative factors.
atrophy of cortical tissues; acetylcholine
Symptoms include muscular tremors, stiff gait which gets progressively worse. The disease is associated with lesions in the motor area of the brainstem and diminished level of dopamine in the brain.
Parkinson's Disease
Dementia may be the first sign of AIDS including inability to concentrate or perform
complex mental tasks. AIDS-related infections may cause neuropsychological problems.
AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome)
__ is caused by spirochete Treponema pallidum. The spirochete directly damages the brain or the nervous system causing general paresis (psychosis associated with syphilis)
Neurosyphilis (General Paresis)
This disorder is caused by brain inflammation due to viral infection. Symptoms include
headache, diminished consciousness and delirium.
This disorder is cause by inflammation of the meninges of the brain due to bacteria, virus
or fungi.
A genetically transmitted disorder with symptoms including jerky, rapid, and repetitive
movements. this first symptoms may be moodiness and depression.
Huntington chorea
A tumor is a mass of abnormal tissues growing within the brain, which can cause disturbances
of consciousness among many others. A tumor may be benign (nin-cancerous) or malignant
Cerebral tumors
This disordder is characterized by intermittent and brief periods of altered consciousness with
seizures due to excessive electrical discharge of the brain cells. ___ is one of the earliest
recognized cognitive disorders. Momentary or violent convulsions and coma may occur.
The most common and dramatic type of epileptic seizure. Before the seizures, the patient hears
an "aura" which is followed by a loss of consciousness. Muscles become rigid. The eyes remain
open. Jerky movements begin with biting tongue followed by coma, which lasts from a few seconds to a few hours.
Grand Mal Seizures
The symptoms include momentary dimming or loss of consciousness, sometimes with
convulsive momements. Seizures last a few seconds and the patient may be unaware of
them.This type of epilepsy usually disappears with aging and is controlled by medication.
Petit Mal Seizures
These seizures typically begin in one part of the body and spread to other parts. They are usually due to a localized and specific brain lesion.
Jacksonian Seizures
Symptoms include loss of consciousness during which a person engages in well-organized and normal-appearing behavior.
All the epileptic seizures are caused by excessive neural (electrical) discharges of the brain due to a variety of factors.
Psychomotor Seizures
Using psychoactive substances can result in cognitive disorders such as dementia, delirium, and
amnestic disorders. This is very true with PCP and LSD.
Psychoactive Substances
Major treatment approaches include surgery, medication, psychological treatment and
environmental interventions.
Treatment Considerations
Various drugs can be used to prevent, control, or reduce the symptoms of brain disorders,
especially epilepsy
. Medication
Memory improvement techniques and other strategies have been used.
Cognitive and Behavioral Approaches
Support of family is essential. Caregivers may need support also.
Environmental Interventions
Scores from intelligence tests referred to intelligence quotients (I.Q.)
are used as indexes of mental retardation. Usually an I. Q. of 100 is considered to be normal I.Q.
on all the intelligence tests.
Diagnosing Mental Retardation
Impoverished and under-stimulated environmentas may lead to mental
Environmental Factors
Mental retardation runs in families. It has strong genetic etiology.
Genetic factors
A good example is Down Syndrome
(trichromosomy of pair 21 )
Pre-natal detection is possible through the process referred to as ____
Environmental condictions during the prenatal period such as viruses, infections, drugs radiation,
poor nutrition and alcohol abuse may lead to mental retardation. Postnatal problems include
head injuries, infections, tumors and malnutrition among others.
Nongenetic Biogenic Factors
Programs such as the Project Head Start are effective.
Early Intervention
These are designed to help mentally handicapped persons learn
occupational skills.
Employment Programs
a tendency to de-institutionalize and place such persons in group homes
to live independently or semi-independently, which will provide them with more "normal" life
Living arrangements