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16 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
diffuse brain damage
attention often impaired due to hypoxia, ingestion of toxic substances
focal brain lesions
circumscribed areas of abnomral change in brain structure

location and extent of damage determines problems
main consequences seen in people with brain damage
1. impairment of memory
2. impairment of orientation
3. impairment of learning, comprehension and judgement
4. impairment of emotional control or modulation
5. apathy or emotional blunting
6. impairment in the initiaion of behavior
6. impairment of controls over matters of propriety and ethical conduct
8. impairment of receptive and expressive communication
9. impaired visuospatial ability
delirium defined
acute confusional state that lies between normal wakefulness and stupor or coma
symptoms of delirium
dificulty in concentration
disruption of the sleep-walking cycle
incoherent speech
memory impairment for recent events
perceptual disturbances
mood/activity swings
dsm criteria for dementia
one or more:
1. aphasia
2. apraxia
3. agnosia
4. disturbance of executive functions
aphasia
deterioration in language function
agnosia
failure to recognize or ID objects despite intact sensory function
apraxia
impaired ability to execute motor activities despite intact motor ability
clinical presentation of alzheimer's disease
gradual onset
-prominent amnesia with rapid forgetting
-marked executive dysfunction
-speeded perceptual-motor integration defects
-lang. production and comprehension
-visuospatial impairments
risk factors for alzheimers
1. age
2. mild congnitive impairment
3. positive family history
4. apolipoprotein E
5. head injurly
6. women>men
7. education/lifetime occupational attainment
frontal-subcortical dementia
involves frontal-subcortical pathways or subcortical structures intimately connected with the frontal lobes
- vascular dementia: stroke
- parkinsons disease
vascular dementia
clot - stroke
burst - anurism
parkinsons disease symptoms
1. stooped and rigid posture, shuffling gait
2. tremor
3. muscular rigidity
4. masklike facial appearance
3 types of traumatic brain injury
-closed-head injuries
-penetrating head injuries
-skull fracture
2 types of amnesia that can result from TBI
1. anteriograde - inability to remember since accident
2. retrograde - inability to remember before accident