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165 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
attracting attention to something
shifting attention AWAY from something
holding attention onto something
Measures of Attention: Heart rate
There is a change in heart rate with orienting, and sustaining and waning attention
HR slow more during longer looking
Focused looking, HF below baseline
Other measures of attention
Motor activity: may be a link between motor system and visual system: More movement, less attention--more attention, less movement
Orienting response present from birth with what
orienting reflex
After orienting, attention
is either sustained or terminated
If stimulus repeated
attentin wanes
If new stimulus
attention is sustained
Stimulus properties that orient and sustain may be
Disengaging attention-what happens
Habituation, decrease in looking time and in HR, second slowing of HR allows better disengaging--this is difficult for young infants/toddlers before second slowing
What type of development guides development of attention
cortical (especially frontal cortex) development
Early infancy (0-2 months)
object properties key, movement, sound and light, combination
Older infants (3months-18months)
object properties still important, more purposeful attention, initiate engagement, animate (people), novel objects
anticipate where object will appear, predict patterns, more control of attention
sustained attention longer--but still only a few minutes
ability to filter out irrelevant information-increases with age
1st-6th grade
attention to relevant stimuli develops faster
3-5% of school aged children
Characteristics of ADHD
inability to sustain attention, careless, forgetful, disorganized, hyperactivity, restless (NOT all children display this), impulsivity, difficulty waiting turn, blurting out answers
ADHD decreased blood flow
in the frontal cortex
Pro Saccades Inhibition test
look toward stimulus on screen (controls reach ceiling around age 10, no diff with ADHD)
Anti saccade
look away toward a blank field (controls slower reaction time, reach ceiling in 20s, ADHD longer RT, more errors)
Inhibition difficult
with ADHD--but changing task demands can reduce errors significantly (add a cue)
what is in the mind-a symbol, image, concept that is held in the mind, remembered and can be manipulated
reproductive images
static (unchanging) rep of objects that have been experienced BEFORE
anticipatory images
transformations of an image, even if it is a transformation that has never been experienced before
Preoperational children only have what images
anticipatory images not availble until
concrete operational stage
Imitation of an invisible gesture (piaget)(12 months)
you can imitate an expression you've never seen before in order to compare your face to the one you are imitating
Meltzoff and Moore Dark room study
2-3 week old infant in dark room, experimenter with light on face, produce action 4 times in 20 seconds, rest 20, then another 4times/20 sec
Is meltzoff and moore study imitation
infants showed evidence for producing the action, -tongue protrusion more replicated, but might not be imitation, other non human stimuli elicit same response--might be ADAPTIVE REFLEX
mickey mouse study
2 Mickey Mouse dolls are shown, screen goes up, hand shown putting another one in, screen goes away, still 2 shown: infants looked longer when total was wrong, even though it is more familiar
Mickey mouse study shows that infants may have
a natural realization of small numbers (1, 2, 3) SUBITIZING
Adults register numbers
faster than would be expected by counting
animals (pigeons)
can also recognize and diferentiate between small numbers
In opposition to piaget, infants may have
the beginnings of representation, but it is just not the same as adults
representational insight
understanding that a symbol can stand for something else (first step in using symbols successfully)
dual representation
being able to see the symbol as a thing itself and a represntation at the same time (young children have trouble keeping two things in mind)
Snoopy Scale model task
2.5 year olds couldn't use model as symbol, couldn't find it in the big room, but could go back to model and find. 3 year olds sucessful
how can make snoopy easier
making the symbol itself less interesting and salient helps children use it as a representation (picture, video)
If demands of dual representation of task are removed
2.5 year olds can do the scale model task
Shrinking room experiment
same as before, but tell children that the model is actually a shrunken version of the same room. 2.5 year olds can do it now--think about it in a different way
Appearance reality distinction
cat w/ dog mask: 3 year olds think it really is a dog now
5 year olds know it is still a cat
Phenomonism error
if it looks red, believe that it is really red (milk in red glass)
intellectual realism error
looks like a sponge, believe it is a sponge (painted)
Real vs. imagined events
gradual development of telling the difference between something that is real or imagined, 4 year olds know at time, but might remember it differently later (remembering events from childhood, or remember being told about them)
Unless deception is involved
even with simple tasks and training, 3 year olds don't get it
dual encoding
thinking about the reality and appearance at the same time (develops gradually)
theory of mind
the knowledge that other people have their own thoughts, beliefs and desires (different than your own)and that these thoughts, beliefs and desires will guid their behaviors. this allows us to predict other's actions
belief desire reasoning
the use of desires and beliefs to explain and predict peoples actions. could be the basis for an adult theory of mind. adults use so much taht we even talk of objects having beliefs and desires (computers, cars)
False belief tasks
test whether children understand that others may have different knowlege and beliefs about a situation than they do and that another person may have a belief that is false (not consistent with what the child knows to be true)
Maxi task
candy hidden, maxi leaves room, candy is moved, where will maxi look for candy (4 year olds do ok, 3 year olds think maxi knows what they know)
smarties task
experimenter shows the child a familiar candy box, child asked what they think is in the box, experimenter shows the child that pencils are in the box, ask child what they thought was in the box, they say pencils, also say other children will think pencils
representational change
the child's memory for their initial belief, 3 years olds answer that they used to htink the same thing they think now
Difficulty with
2 representations of a single object (candy at 2 locations or two different contents of the box)
Could be children can't do smarties because
unable to inhibit the salient informatino of the actual locatin of the candy or the contents of the box
children with older siblings and more adults often do
better on false beliefs tasks
language abilities correlated with
performance on false belief tasks--children who use sentences like " i believe that, he thinks that"
importance of task
children may show theory of mind at different ages depending on the task that is used
Visual Preference Paradigm
2 stimuli shown simultaneously, longer looking at one indicateds discrimination and preference (something attracts them)
Habituation paradigm
stimuli shown sequently, looking time decreases, new stimulus presented, looking time measured, increasing in looking time indicated discrimination
Visual perception at one week
visual acuity: 20/600, movement: large slow objects, convergence and coordination
minute old: prefer faces, 12 hrs prefer mother, following moving faces, no preference for A and B contrast, but prefer ab over cd
both eyes can focus on same thing
move eyes with moving object
1-2 months visual perception
visual acuity 20/300, no discrimination in high constrast face at 6 weeks, subcortical reflexes decline, tracking faces declines,
3-4 months visual perception
motion helps identify objects--special attraction to human motion
symmetry, efficient processing of vertical symmetry
faces: infants prefer attractive faces, prefer correct contrast, infants understand that vision with one eye is different than vision with two eyes
binocular depth
5-6 visual perception
infants do not dishabituate to an averaged face
7-8 months perception
monocular depth cues without motion
relative size, texture, interposition, preference for vertical symmetry
relative size
if the object is bigger, it must be closer
more distinguishable of texture of closer objects
an object is closer if you can see all of object
9 months visual perception
have a lot of adult like visual abilities, good visual acuity, binoc an monoc depth perception
high sucking rate
stimulus present
preferential sucking
infants suck faster or slower to hear stimulus
one week auditory
sensitive to higher frequencies, prefer women's voices, mother's language, pref sucking to hear mothers voice, and familiar passage
2-4 months auditory
infants can turn their head when they hear phoneme change, prefer own name
6-12 months auditory
infants can discriminate btwen phoneme contrasts NOT in their language (english/hindi, japanese/english)all infants can distinguish at 6 months but NOT 9-12 months
intermodal integration
newborns can orient to new sound
propprioceptive info
info gleaned thru body motions or balance (posture) posture is always changing
intermodal matching
must match 2 stimuli, each one presented to a different sense, at 4 months can coordinate visual input with sound, see 2 movies with different actions, watch the movie that fits with sound
perception and action
perception guides action--they are integrated
optical flow
movements in the viusal field that indicate bodily or object movement
waterbed study
2 surfaces: platform, waterbed, if only one surface presented, all infants cross hard surface, walkers spent more time exploring waterbed, all crawled across.
if both surfaces presented, crawlers showed no preference, walkeres, almost all preferred hard surface
role of vision in detecting crossable surfaces
2 firm surfaces, 2 diff covers, one velvet black
our surace presented, all infants crossed, but walkers explored, 2 surfaces presented, all infants preferred checkered carpet
actions guide perception
infants make more exploratory movements when they need perceptual infor to move (walkers more wary than crawlers, more exploratory, need to learn posture and bdy movements all over again when walking--not same as crawling)
Crawling linked to
perceptual skills, not age
visual cliff
chick avoid right after birth, kittens only avoid after walking is good, 2 and 3 month old infants can detect the change in depth (heart rate decelerates) 9 month olds who crawl fear cliff, heart rate accelerates
capacity and speed of processing
capacity of UM depends partly on speed of processing
linear rel btwn speech rate and number of words recalled
speed and capacity affected by
expertise and ease of identification
neo piagetian info processing theories
attempt to explain how children progress thru stages
child's current capacity in working memory M=a+k
progression thru stages is incrases in m space
more space, more info simultaineously
changes in k
changes in the ability to understand task demands and consider more items
operating space
work with info, apply strategies, efficiency
storage space
space where you store info ryou are currently working with
total processing space
operating plus storage
operating space gets smaller
storage space gets larger, but total op space does not change
why changes in operating space
age, tasks (harder, more space required, less storage allowed)
how does operating space change
automatization, biological maturation
executive processes-reaction time task
attention interferes with working memory
executive processes
attention, inhibition
what are info processing approaches
framework for understnading how people (receive, use, store, retrieve information)
what develops in info processing
processing capacity and processing speed
declarative memory
episodic: memory for events
semantic: memory for facts, rules, etc.
procedural memory: knowing how to do things
automatic processes: ie statistical learning
effortful processes: glucose consumption
short term store/memory
number of things that can be kept in mind at once
working memory
number of items you ca work with in your head at once
span of apprehension
sensory store
amount of sensory information available in short term store
2 years: 2
5 years: 4
7 years: 5
9 years: 6
Adults: 7
working memory is two digits less
verbal articulation is responsible for what
working memory span, longer words, faster talking
speed of processing in wm usually measured
measured in reaction time, identification, name retrieval, addtion (time required varies between tasks)
other effects on processing speed
expertise, item identification (ease of it)
5 year olds identify faces slower than adults, results in few remembered
connectionist modeling
simulate on computer how thinking works
mimic neuronal connections and behavior--demonstrate how neurons can represent knowledge and learning
input nodes
initial representation of information
hidden layers
combine infor from input
out put nodes
response (supervised learning)
german case model
tool to learn how brain works--pattern detector, knowledge represented by patterns
wisconsin card sorting task
measures inhibition, frontal lobe regulated
testing infant perception using a habituation paradigm indicates
discriminatino between stimuli
at birth, infants can trun their heads toward a sound they hear
intermodal integration
when given a choice between a water bed surface or a hard surface, infants who walk choose
hard surface
who doesn't show fear of visual cliff
3 month old infant
knowing how to drive a car is an example of what memory
procedural memory
sensory store does what
filters out information from environmental input for manipulation in short term memory
as children get older, they can recall a greater number of items--reflects change in what
working memory capacity
glucose consumption
more difficult taks require mroe glucose
characteristics of attention in early infancy
regulated by autonomic nervous system, sustained by properties of the object, orient by pairing a visual stimulus with a sound
stimulants are given to children with ADHD because
increases blood flow in the frontal cortex which allows better regulation of attention
in a classification task, labeling an item, and describing an inherent characteristic of that item llows children to
attribute the characteristic to a different looking item that belongs in the same conceptual category
according to class lecture, using habituation and preferential looking paradigms has shown that 3 and 4 months infants are able to form categories based on
perceptual characteristics of items
which task can be passed at the youngest age
scale model task
ability to treat a set of things as somehow equivalent, or call them by the same ame is called
recognition memory
memory without awareness, non declarative
short familiartization time
infants prefer the familiar stimulus
long familiarization time
infants prefer the novel stimulus
why difference in familiarization time
in coding, shorter time doesn't llow infants to encode feature or they aren't able to store them in short term memory
size shape color test
immediate recall, size color shape
15 min delay: shape color
24 min delay: only shape
fragmented picture task
see line drawing of objects and nme it, later see fragmented pic of same and new object. name old picture faster because they saw the full picture--no developmental effects in implicit memory
mobile and ribbon
tie ribbon to mobile, infants learn to kcik to make it move
2months retain for 48 hours, 6 months retain for 2 weeks
if given reminder, but not allowed to kick, they remember longer
HIGHLY CONTEXT SPECIFIC--changes in ribbon or mobile will result in changes in memory performance
patterns and shape changes
disrupt memory more than color changes
implicit memories in adults
are not context specific
gong test
shown how to make gone, after delay, given toys and observed
9 months recall after 1 month
10 months recall after 3 months
20 months recall after 12 months
factors affecting explicit memories in infancy
temporal order (older infants able to remember sequence)
casual relations ( when order is important, helps memory)
immediate imitation
recall strategies
deliberately used to aid encoding and recall (organizing, rehearsal and elaboration)
chunking information together in groups
repateing information to be remembered
create a meaningful relationship between items that is not inherently present
mediatinoal deficiencies
do not use spotaneously, do not benefit from it
production deficiencies
benefit, but do not use spontaneously, shown and encouraged, but won't use on own
utilization deficiency
stretegy used spontaneously, but children' do not benefit that much (ability to use may not be that great)
applying strategies across taks
children may apply a strategy succesfully on one task and show a production deficiency on another task
applying strategies WITHIN a task
children usually show mediatinoal deficiences first, then production, and then utilization before applying a strategy successfully
more knowledge about a domain knowledege base
leads to better memory for new information
knowledge structures that describe how events usually happen
2 and 3 years represent events in scripts, inhibits some rentention of novel scripts, parents guide development of scripts
content knowledge
semantic knowledge about things--increases processing eficiency
how does knowledge base aid memory
accessibility of specific items-rich representations
activation of relation between items-more organizaed
use of deilberate strategies--apply specific strategies easier in familiar domains
Episodic memory
memory for events--constructed from gist traces
gist traces
often based on scripts--encodes central aspects of n event
verbatim traces
details exactly as they ocured-last a few weeks
Children's testimony
general question
what happened at school?
2-3 years recall little, but accurate
4 years, recall more detilas froma scripted story than non scripted story
children's testimony, specific questions
what did the bike look like?
incrases in incorrect info from kindergarten and 2nd graders, older children and adults gave more correct infor
do children retain incorrect information?
short delay, often do not retain the incorrect information
long delay: incorrect info IS RECALLED, why? accurate info is based on berbatime traces which fade faster-inaccurate info is based on gist traces
suggestive questions
preschool children especially susceptible--more likely to be swayed
3 and 6 year olds: peripheral info: more likely to be swayed
central info: less liekly to be swayed
with suggestive questions, is there a change in representation or just their answers
stronger suggestions, more changed in representation
peripheral info: minrepresentation in later recall
central info: less liekly to be misrepresented in later recall
young children's memories are an interplay of many differenet factors such as
age, type of questions, length of delay after event, knowledge base, use of strategies