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85 Cards in this Set

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constructive memory
inference drawing, or the integration of new info into meaningful stuctures that are already stored in memory, which facilitates retention of the new info-substanial development during middle childhood.
basic memory process
routine act of storing and retrieving information.
knowledge
vast networks of accumulated info people store in memory
Mnemonic strategies
cognitive ways of faciliating memory ex. rehersal, organization, elaboration
Metamemory
knowledge about memory and memory processes
-thinking about need to remember
-knowing own strengths and weaknessess in remembering
short term memory
-less than 20 seconds
-7 items
-working memory
-conscious
-Active, maintained by rehearsal
(if you dont rehearse it, it will go out. If you keep on rehearsing it will eventually go to long term)
sensory
-less than 1 second
-Fleeting (passing quickly)
-Limited capacity
-Momentary unconscious
(ex. close your eyes after looking at a room and you might have a brief image of it)
Long Term
-Indefinite duration
-Unlimited capacity
-Knowledge base
-passive
-results from encoding
(passive-your not actively aware that some memories are there. They have to be retrieved.
explicit (conscious, declarative)
conscious memory for facts and events
semantic
factual knowledge not tied to personal experiences. ex. hot to tie a shoe, or reciting ABC's.
episodic
(autobiographical)
personal, specific memories tied to a time and place.
ex. having a b-day party (remembering it).
Implicit
(unconscious, nondeclarative)
unconsious, procedural memory
ex. knowing how to stay upright on a bike Things you dont think about doing such as driving a car (motor memory)
componential subtheory
info processing skills underlying intelligence. Children speed of processing is related to IQ. If they think faster, effective strategy use, thinking about thinking (how they will approach a problem).
experiential subtheory
how process information in new situations. Highly intelligent kids can use their prior experiences to this.
contextual subtheory
adapt information processing skills to fit every day words.
Intelligent behavior is never culture free, testing often biased.
emotional intelligence
Not yet supported by research, but inter- and intra-personal intelligence have become widely known as emotional intellgence (not measured on IQ tests)
internal working model
set of expectations derived from cargiving experiences about the avaibility of attachment figures, the self as worthy of care and attention, and the likelihood or receiving support.
-expectations how they relate to others, become internalized and used as a guide for furture behavior and close relationships
secure attachment
child uses parent as secure base, actively seek promixity under stress and are easily comforted by parent (65%). The parent tunes in to the child's signbal. If baby looks and smiles so does mom
avoidant attachment
-part of insecure attachment
-unresponsive to parent when she is present, avoid parent during reunions (20%). Even when child doesn't want to interact mom does.
Resistant attachment
-part of Insecure attachment
-often clingy and fail to explore; are angry at parent during reunions; not easily soothed. ex. Briana when she was little.
disorganized/disoriented attachment
at most risk; show confusion during reunions; approach with flat depressed gaze; frozen postures (5-10%). (no real reaction from the baby)
authoritative parenting
-high self esteem
-more responsive
-they help their child evaluate their kids behavior agaisnt resonable standards
authoritarian
-communicates a sense of inadequacy
-cohersive parenting/really high standards and low warmth.
They dont believe their kids are confident
-makes kids feel that their behavior needs to be controlled by adults.
permissive
no matter what their kids do they are great and ownderful.
Later on kids doubt their own abilities.
uninvolved parenting styles
combines undemanding with indifferent, rejecting behavior. Little commitment beyond feeding and clothing, parents usually highly stressed.
mastery-orientation
-credit success to high ability and failure to lack of effort=high self-esteem
-you can improve by trying hard. The ability can be changed with work. Take an ethusiastic view to learning.
learning goals
-Mastery-oriented childred focus on learning goals.
-focus on increasing ability through effort and information seeking
learned-helpless orientation
-credit success to luck and failure to low ability
-when do good at something they think its by chance
They believe their ability can't be change.
-"everything is out of my hands if I do good it was luck"
performance goals
-learned helpless children focus on performance goals
-focus on obtaining positive and avoiding negative evaluations
-negative cycle in the long run, because their ability no longer predicts performance because they are all about 'things happen by chance' so dont even try.
secure base
The use of a familiar caregiver as a base from which a child confidently explores his or her environment. Ex. Child is playing and every now and then they will look back to see if mom or dad is there.
Popular children
many positive votes (ranked as kids they like to be with)
-Prosocial: academically and socially competent.
-Antisocial: poor students; but athletically skilled boys who are socially skilled at explotiing others seen as "cool" by peers.
Rejected children
lots of negative voted, wide range negative social behaviors; few/no votes.
-Agressive: largest subgroup, severe conduct problem, poor prespective takers > hostile attributions
-Withdrawn: passive, socially awkward, anxious, lonely, at rick of being bullied.
Controversial children
-Both ends
-large # positive AND negative votes from peers
-Hostile and disruptive but also engage in prosocial acts
-have as many friends as popular kids, acts satisfied with relationships
-status often changed over time (something seen as popular and not)
Neglected children
-seldom voted for postive or negative
-shy children that interact less with others
-satisfied , not lonely
-well adjusted
-status usually temporary
Hostile agression
Third grade on- rise in relational aggression among girls; boys:(overt), verbal insults, pranks in small groups
traditional classrooms
-teacher as sole authority
-direct instruction
-child as passive learner
-structured classroom(ex.desks face front)
-assess by uniform standards
open classrooms
-more student choice: responsibility
-more cooperative small group learning
-child seen as active leader
-diverse learning materials; flexibility in teh use of space
-individualized assessment ex. Developmental goals for the children
educational self-fulfilling prophecies (teacher expectations)
-idea that children may adopt teacher's negative/positive attitudes toward them and start to live up to these views
-How much of a problem is this?
-effect strongest when the teachers emphasize competition/compare children.
-low-achieving students are most susceptible
WISC-II Intelligence Scale
-ages 6-16 years
-includes 2 broad factors: verbal and performance (you dont have to have verbal with examiner when doing performance) ex. child working with blocks. What can I make this into?
-performance items require the arrangments of materials instead of talking to experimenter (not language dependent)
-standarized on samples representing the total U.S. population including ethnic minorities.
Standford-Binet Intelligence Scale
-ages 2-adulthood
-measure of general intelligence and 4 factors:verbal reasoning, quantitative reasoning, abstract/visual reasoning, and short-term memory
-abstract/visual portion less culturally biased
ex. child not able to have books becasue of poverty, maybe didnt have the expensive books to help them with some of the questions on the test.
Name the 3 interacting subtheories of Sternberg's Triarchic Theory
Componential subtheory, experiential subtheory, contextual subtheory
Gardner's Theory
-dismisses the idea of "general intelligence"
- 8 different independent intelligences with unique biological bases and courses of development. (ex. linguistic, musical, interpersonal, etc.)
Gardner defines intellgience as:
specfic set of processing operations that permit people to engage culturally meaningful activities (he doesnt believe that ID scores tell how smart a person is)
CULTURAL BIASES IN TESTING
-Ethnic and SES differences in children's IQ scores
African Americans 15 points below white children, Latino in between.
low S.E.S children fall 9 points below middle class
-Heredity and environment
some believe different scores are do to heredity and environment.
-Cultural customs and experience
the home environment rich for language development. in African Americans home they ask questions with one right answer but not requiring to much thinking.
How do we reduce the biases in testing?
-trying to please person examining them.
-just writting down the answer
-cultural-family in U.S. for some years but Mexico before.
-scalfolding- what can they learn with social support.
What are the five major challenges of psychosocial development in middle childhood?
-challenge knowing who you are
-challenge to achieve
-challenge of family relationships
-challenge of peers
-challenge of school
What are the changes in middle childhood that occur in self-conscious emotions in middle childhood?
-pride and guilt become early integrated by personal responsibility
-school-age children do not report guilt for many mishap, but only for intentional wrongdoing(taking resonsiblity for success)
-They feel shame when violated a standard that was not under their control.
-pride motivates to take challenges; guilt prompts children to make amends and self-improve.
What are the changes in middle childhood that occur in emotional understanding in middle childhood?
-school-age children can understand psychological dispositions
-explain emotion by making reference to internal states rather than physical events
-More aware of the diversity of emotional experiences(able to feel two things at once happy and sad)
-school-age children know that emotional reactions need not reflect person's true feelings
-cognitive and social experience also contribute to the rise in empathy.
What are the changes in middle childhood that occur in self-regulation in middle childhood?
-Children come up with more ways to handle emotionally arousing situations
Ex. anxious about taking a test
-when the development of self-regulation goes well, children develop a sense of emotional self-efficacy- a feeling of being in control of their emotional experience.
-well-regulated children are upbeat, more empathic and pro-social, more popular
-temperament and parenting affect emotional self -regulation (enivornment and heredity).
What are the different ways that parents aid in children's emotional development?
-PARENTS AS SOCIAL SUPPORTS
1. help regulate childrens emtions in times of needs (pain, anxiety) when children's resources are limited]
2. help child control feelings and help child work through it.]
-PARENTS ARE EMOTIONAL COACHES AND TEACHERS
[Parents inform children about emtion-laden events]
[Parents talk to children about verbal labels for their inner experiences and the causes of others' emotions, and consequences of their own emotional displays.] ex. aww when he hit you that made you sad. how do you think she felt when you did that?
-PARENTS TALK ABOUT FAMILY EMOTIONS
[related to grade-schoolers' moral sensitivity]
-children who have advanced understanding of emotions
What are the different ways that peers aid in children's emotional development?
-on simliar developmental level; group norms ex: we're the cheese haters! It tesfies their relationship with one another.
-peer group display rules
hide fear, anxiety, anger Boys: restrict positive as get older
-Methods of control
Teasing, ridicule ex. bullying
Fear of being organized
-Emotional fronts- feeling an emotion but not showing it
-Emotional maturity leads to popular; Anger and envy leads to rejection
What are the different ways that friends aid in children's emotional development?
Preadolescent friendships:
-Learn loyalty, support, caring
-Challenges from disagreements
Attributions- refer to what you atrribute to other's emotion. ex. being easier on your best friend (wanting to work things out)rather then a classmate.
-Competition in freindships
[challenges kids to evaluate structure in their friendship]
ex. Revenge strategies
no reciprocals -one girl say these are my friends and the smae people she talking about says their not.
What are some changes that occur in self-concept during middle childhood?
-children develop a more refined me-self or self concept.
Meself ex. the baby looks in the mirror with the red dot on their face but doesnt do anything about it. The olde rthey get they wash it off by age 2. Middle childhood- how they are thinking of themselves and how they see others seeing them. Looking at how they are precieved by others. they are more conscious.
-Describe themsleves in terms of psychological traits
ex. age 2 or 3 would say I own a truck but a middle childer would say I am shy, or I am truthful. (not pertaining to something they own).
-Children make social comparisons in that they judge their appearance, abilities, and behavior in relation to others.
What are the cognitive, social and cultural influences on self-concept during middle childhood?
-cognitive development affects the structure of self-concept; children can combine experiences and behaviors into stable dispostions.
-The changing content of self-concept is a product of both cognitive capacities and feedback from others. In other words, a blend of what important people think of us. What does mom, dad, and friends think of me.
-Prespective taking skills emerging during middle childhood play a crucial role in the development of self. (How will they judge me in this situation)
-Children become better at reading messages from toehrs and incorporating them into their self-defintions
-They form an ideal self(how they would please everyone else)that they use to evaluate their real self. there is a gap in where they are and who they want to be.
list and describe the four types of self-esteem.
-academic competence: ex. subdivided in school subjects (high self-esteem if good in math, but low if bad in science)
-Social competence
-Physical/atheltic competence:
how you perform in sports.
-Physical apperance:
has a much greater contribution than the others.
Explain how levels of self-esteem change over the course of the school years.
-self-esteem drops during the first few years of elementary school
-Most children appraise their characteristics realistically while maintaining an attitude of self-acceptance. ex. always comparing to peers so they do personal achievement goals.
-Form forth to sixth grade, self-esteem rises for most children, but declines for girls during adolescence
What are some ways parents and teachers can promote mastery orientations?
parents- set high standards for children believe that child has to work harder.
teachers- who are warm and fair encourage kids to try harder.
cooperative learning
restructuring classroom to focus on intrinsic learning, cooperation, and diversity of learning Styles. Cooperative learning tehn reading groups. "Oh I'm in the low reading group"
family system approach
-individual embedded in family system taht has several subsystems tha influences functioning (parent-child, sibling, martial)
-There is interdependence among the roles and functions of all family memebers
Parent-child relationships in middle childhood
parent-child interactions decline - decrease p.c interaction form early to middle childhood
-families are most influncial at this stage, help deals with rage, anger, etc.
coregulation
parents excerise oversight,but childrens make moment to moment decisions guiding and monitoring kids from a distance but still involved.
how do sibling relationships influence in middle childhood?
-sibiling subsystem: siblings provide companionship and emotional support.
-may buffer the effects of negative peer relations (even if didnt have friends can still have positive development with sibilings realtionship)
-sibling relationships context for learning about rivalry and jealousy
-parents make more comparisons during this time= sibling rivalry. parental comparisons when siblings are same sex and close in age.
how do marital subsystem influence in middle childhood?
influences parent-child interactions and childrens long term adjustment
-indirect effects of marital conflict on children's adjustment: parent sget into fight it will effect the interaction with the child because of their mood.
-direct effects: cursing infront of teh child, seeing the fight can lead to shame and doubt.
Describe the rates of divorce
-U.S. divorce rate is highest in the world
-Most children spend 5 yrs of childhood in single-parent home
-2/3 of divorced parents marry a second time .5 of which will end in divorce.
What are some immediate consequences (short term)of divorce?
Disrupted routines/inconsistent parenting:
-minimal parenting(no spenidng time with them as much as before divorce)
-mothers give hard punishments fathers usually permissive, and indulgent.(fathers see kids less often)
What are the conditions in newly divorce households?
-high conflict
-sharp drop in income (mother headed)
-Often dont recieve child support
-Often move so supportive ties are reduced.
What are some of the long term consequences of divorce?
-2 years after the divorce majority of children show improved adjustment.
-young people who experienced parental divorce typically display rise in sexual activity in adolescence and increased risk for divorce in adult lives also in risk for divorce themsleves and forming ties with intimate people.
list the factors related to the most optimsal outcomes for children.
-most salient factor in positive adjustment after divorce is effective parenting
-some studies suggest that outcomes for sons are better if father is the custodial parent
-clear evidence remaining in stressed intact family is much worse than low-conflict single parent household. Contact with father is good especially for girls for future relationships.
Explain how the consequences of divorce differ by the sex and temperament of children
-Boys and children with difficult temperaments are most likely to experience lasting emotional problems after divorce.
-easy temp. children less often targets of anger and better able to cope
-girls sometimes respond with internalizing other times demanding
-boys and girls show declines in school achievement, but greater for boys
how do early attachments classifications relate to later development?
-peer relations: (more attached):-high self esteem, popular, cooperative with peers
-Exploration and problem solving: (securly attached)- explore environment in classroom Feel more confident in selves problem solving
-support learning and mastery in middle childhood
-more favorable relations with peers and social skills at age 11
Name Baumrind's parenting styles
-Authoritatrian, Authoritative, Permissive, Univolved
What are the associated child outcomes of a parent using authoritarian parenting style?
Children-withdrawn, anxious, unhappy, angry with peers
What are the associated child outcomes of a parent using authoritative parenting style?
Children- (most positive outcomes for children) happy, self-reliant, achievers.
What are the associated child outcomes of a parent using uninvolved parenting style?
Children-many problems, in almost all areas (socially , cognitively)
What are the associated child outcomes of a parent using permissive parenting style?
Children- immature, rebellious, dependent, low achievers
How is the parenting styles across cultures?
Chinese- more demanding and high emphasis on control can be described as authoritarian parenting but that not going on there more authoritative
Hispanic and Asian Pacific Island- Firm insistance on respect for paternal authority with unusally high warmth.
African American- adult-centered expect immediate obedience strict demands for compliance with warmth and reasoning.
what are the outcomes for children with gay/lesbian parents?
-studies show not detrimental for children
-are gender roles important in parenting? 1 million-5 million kids live with same sex parents .
-Similar divisions of labor but more egalitarian in their homes.
what are the outcomes for children with incarcerated parents?
-growing field of research and intervention.
-child can have parents in jail. 3.6 million in conrrectional supervision (parl or jail) 90% fathers.
-Children have low academic functioning.
What are the three developmental stages of freindship expectations?
STAGE 1: through early elementary years- Reward-cost stage- friend is someone useful and source of pleasure, accessible; fun to be around, but rewards are mutual. (what can I get out of this friendship)
STAGE 2: mid-elementary school-
Normative stage shared values and rules become important mutual acceptance and loyalty become important.
STAGE 3: adolescence- Empathic stage- children begin to care about what happend to a friend; mutual understanding, self disclosure intimacy and trust very important
How does the interactions of friends differ from non-friends?
-With a friend children engage in more: Sophiscated forms of play, especially dramatic play
Affective , visual attention, asking questions
Communication and give-and-take conflict resolution strategies
Mutual liking, closeness, loyalty
Explain the models of the role of friendship in development
MODEL 1: poor peer relationships have a direct cause role in the development of maladjustment; positive peer relations are development necessities(idea that friendship is so important,without it there will be problems)
MODEL 2: maladaptive social behavior or behavioral deviance leads to poor outcomes and only indirectly (incidentally) related to peer rejection.
MODEL 3: postive peer realtions can reduce influence prexisting potential for maladjustment (moderating)
What inteventions are avaiable to assist rejected children?
-coaching, modeling, reinforcement of postive social skills
-intensitive academic tutoring
-focus on perspective taking and social problem solving
-increase childrens expectations for social success.
How do boys and girls' beliefs about gender roles change during middle childhood?
Girls-reading, art, music and more for Boys-mathematics, athletics, and mechanical skills.
GIrls: believe boys are smarter
MIddle schoolers are open minded about what males and females can do but not what they should do.
-girls identification with "femine" attributes declines still lean forward "feminine" side but also begin to describe themselves as having some "other gender" characteristics.
Describe teacher-student interactions.
-American teachers tend to emphasize rote, repetitive drills more than higher-level thinking
-When higher level thinking is encouraged children are attentive and show greater achievement gains.
-Not interact in the same way with all students.
Describe two Grouping Practices for classroom classifactions
Ability grouping:
-homogenous groups (kids all the same ability in one group)
-low-track children get poor teaching and develop
-labeling impacts peer relations
-can widen the gap between high and low achievers
Heterogeneous grouping:
-multigrade classrooms (4th, 5th grade, in one class)
-self esteem increase
-attitudes toward school move postive
-opportunites for peer tutoring
-decrease competition