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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Repression
Unconscious forgetting
Confabulation
Filling in gaps in memory by combining and substituting memories from other events
Misinformation effect
Incorporating misleading info in to our memory of an event
Misattribution Error
Forgetting what happened or distorting a memory
Metacognition
Thinking about how we think
Algorithm
Problem-solving strategy that involves a slow, step-step procedure
Heuristics
Mental shortcuts to solve most problems
Insight
Sudden realization of the solution to a problem
Trial & Error
Trying solutions and discarding ones that don’t work
Inductive Reasoning
Involves reasoning from the specific to the general, forming concepts
Deductive Reasoning
Involves reasoning from the general to the specific
Fixation
Inability to look at a problem from a fresh perspective, using a prior strategy
Mental Set
Tendency to approach a problem in the same way that was successful before
Functional Fixedness
Failure to use an object in an unusual way
Availability heuristic
Estimating the probability of certain events in terms of how readily they come to mind
Representative Heuristic
Mental shortcut by which a new situation is judged by how well it matches a stereotypical model
Framing
Refers to the way a problem is set up
Anchoring Effect
Tendency to be influenced by a suggested reference point
Confirmation Bias
Tendency to search for and use info that supports our preconceptions
Belief Perseverance
Tendency to hold on to a belief after the basis is discredited
Belief Bias
Tendency for our preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning
Hindsight Bias
Tendency to falsely report that you correctly predicted the outcome of an event
Over-confidence bias
Tendency to underestimate the extent to which our judgments are erroneous
Creativity
Ability to think about a problem or idea in new and unusual ways
Convergent thinkers
Use problem solving strategies directed toward one correct solution
Divergent thinkers
Produce many answers to the same question
Brainstorm
Generating lots of idea without evaluating
Language
Flexible system of spoken, written or signed symbols that enables us to communicate our thoughts/feelings
Phonemes
Basic units of sound
Morphemes
Smallest meaningful units of speech
Grammar
System of rules for a language
Syntax
Set of rules that regulates the order of words
Semantics
Set of rules that enables you to derive meaning from morphemes/words
Babbling
Production of phonemes
Holophrase
Use of one word to convey meaning
Telegraphic Speech
Characterized by the use of a verb and noun
Overgeneralization
Children apply grammatical rules without making appropriate exceptions
Critical Period
Age/time when most of learning is done
Linguistic relativity
Hypothesis that language determines what we can perceive