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28 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What makes automatic responding in humans so attractive? So dangerous?
*Automacity is attractive because it is efficient
*Automacity is dangerous because it involves mindless and little conscious effort
What are some miscomprehensions used in advertising?
*Statements that use the word 'may' - they are literally true, but figuratively false
*Comparison ommission
*Piecemeal data
*Affirmation of the consequent
*Incomplete information
*Negative questions
Statements that use the word 'may' - they are literally true, but figuratively false
*'Using brand X client pills may help you lose weight'
*'If you buy a lottery ticker, you may win millions'
Comparison Ommission
'Big teeth tooth paste cleans your teeth better' - no comparison group is given - better than what?...Mud?
Piecemeal Data
*Individual statements are presented in order to provide a global inference that may not be true
-'Lose weight, Buy skinny pills'
-'Lose weight, Stand on your head'
-'Lose weight, eat more chocolate'
Affirmation of the Consequent
*If p than q statements are interpreted as if q than p
*Caring mothers use Jiffy' - so choosing Jiffy makes you a caring mother
Incomplete Information
'50 doctors recommend...' what's missing? - what kind of doctors are they?
Negative questions
*'Don't you want to have clean floors? - Implies that if you don't buy the product your floors will not be clean
What are some Types of Judgment Heuristics?
*When motivation and opportunity are low we are more liekly to use judgment heuristic
-Lexicographic heuristic
-Lexicographic semiorder heuristics
-Elimination by aspects heuristics
-Majority of confirming dimensions heuristics
-Conjunctive heuristics
-Disjunctive heuristics
Lexicographic Heuristic
*choosing the best choice by looking at only the most important attribute
*If there is a tie the second most attribute is used
Lexicographic Semiorder Heuristics
*Same as lexicographic but, close values are treated like ties
Elimination by Aspects Heuristics
*Options are eliminated that do not meet a minimum cutoff point on the attribute of comparison
Majority of Confirming Dimensions Heuristics
*The choice with the greatest number of superior attributes is selected
Conjunctive Heuristic
*Set a minimum acceptable cutoff for each attribute
*You select the first option that meets them all
Disjunctive Heuristic
*You set a minimum acceptable curoff for each attribute
*you select the first option that meets any one of the attribute requirements
Which are the three features of the reciprocity rule that make it so exploitable by compliance professionals?
1. The rule is overpowering
-Politics
-The not so free sample
2. The rule enforces uninvited debts
-Receiving address labels
3. The rule can trigger unqual exchanges
-A small initial favor can produce a sense of obligation to agree to a substantially larger return favor
Why should the reject-then-retreat technique increase compliance?
*Start with an extreme request that is sure to be rejected, the requester can then retreat to a smaller request (the one that was desired all along), which is likely to be accepted because it appears to be a concession. Increases the liklihood that the person will carry out the request and will agree to such requests in the future
Explain how low-balling works.
*Once you agree to the request you are likely to maintain your commitment even if the initial terms of the agreement are changed
-After you commit to buy a car - they tell you OK - but then they tell you that there are added prices
Explain how the foot-in-the-door technique works.
*First start with a small request and follow up with a larger one
*Telemarketers start by asking questions that they know you will answer yes to
*Saying yes to the larger request is consistent with earlier requests
Explain the relationship between committment and consistency.
*People will change their beliefs in order to maintain a consistent belief system
*People will change their attitudes when they are inconsistent with behaviors
*A number of influence tactics are based on this principle
Why in the Festinger, Riecken, and Schachter study of the end-of-the-world cult did members pushed to win new converts only after their doomsday predictions proved to be false?
*Social proof
*Although alarmed at first, the cultists became strengthened in their convictions
*Messages from guardians assured them that they and all those who believed in the lessons would survive
Explain the Halo effect. How can it explain the relationship between a person's physical attractiveness and the persons general attractiveness in the eyes of others?
*A halo effect occurs when one positive characteristic of a person dominates the way that person is viewed by others
*Attractive sources can be persuasive
*Attraction is influenced by appearance, similarity, and presentation style
*Attractive people get away with more
A series of studies by Sherif on the creation and reduction of hostility between groups was conducted at boy's summer camps. After hostility was generated which procedures successfully reduced the hostility
*Cooperative ventures were established
*Successful joint efforts toward common goals steadily bridged the rift between the two groups
Social validation
*compliance increases as the number of people seen as using the product or endorsing the idea increases (salting tip jars)
The liking principle
*liking is power, the more people like you the more power you have over them
*we prefer to do business with and purchase from people we like (mere exposure and similarity)
Scarcity principle
*we want something more when it is perceived to be in short supply, the reason for the scarcity is important
*demand vs. accident
What are three most influential symbols of authority?
*titles, clothing, and automobiles
What does the chocolate chip cookies study by Worchel Lee and Adewole indicate about the circumstances that maximizes the effects of the scarcity principle?
*jar of 10 cookies
*jar of 2 cookies
*people who ate a cookie out of the jar of two cookies rated its quality much better