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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
psyhophysics
the discipline that investigates the relationship between
– the physical dimensions of stimuli and
– the subjective, psychological experience of those stimuli
2-point threshold
Two-point threshold: what is the
smallest separation between two points
that is still perceived as two separate
points
– Depends on location on the body where
this is measured
just noticeable difference JND
the amount of change needed for people to detect a change
distance of discriminablity
very large differences are judged faster
than small differences
symbolic distance effect
large symbolic differences (1 vs. 100) are judged faster than small symbolic differences (2 vs. 3)
semantic congruity effect
symbolic differences are faster
when the question is phrased in a way that matches our semantic knowledge of the symbols
-EX: which is smaller? A rhino or an elephant? vs. which is BIGGER?
Give an example of the Semantic congruity effect and explain how it shoes the role of knowledge in even simple decisions
just remember that we are quicker when the wording is congruent with our knowledge
what is semantic orderings?
People can also judge differences between
concepts that do not have any underlying
physical, quantitative dimension
– Which one is better:
• lose vs. peace
• hate vs. pressure
– Results in the distance effects and congruity
effects
define algorithm and give an example
a specific rule or solution procedure
that is guaranteed to furnish the correct answer
if it is followed correctly
– For example, a formula or a recipe
define heuristics and give an example
a strategy or approach that works
under some circumstances but that is not guaranteed to yield the correct answer
– For example, a rule-of-thumb, a quick-and-dirty solution
normative model of reasoning
the algorithms to
use given a certain problem
– how people should make decisions if they
wanted to optimize their outcomes
descriptive model of reasoning
what people
actually do when they make a decision
what is the representativeness heuristic, what is it used for. and on which 2 features is it based?
an estimate of the probability or likelihood of an event is determined by one of 2 characteristics: how similar the event is to the population of events it came from or whether the event seems similar to the process that produced it
conjunction fallacy
rating the co-occurrence of two events as more probable than only one event by itself
confirmation bias
the tendency to seek and pay attention to evidence and information that supports, instead of falsifies, current beliefs
availability heuristic
Estimating the
frequency or likelihood of events based on how easily examples of the event come to mind, the ease with which relevant examples can be remembered
salience and vividness bias
Availability heuristic works if information
in memory is representative of objective
frequency
• But, some information is more salient:
more noticeable, important or prominent
– News coverage is selective, providing us with
non-representative frequencies
simulation heuristic
a mental construction or imagining of outcomes,
a forecasting of how some event will turn out or how it might have
turned out under another set of circumstances
counterfactual reasoning
reasoning
about an event by deliberately
contradicting the facts in a “what if” kind of way
- i'm going to act like something didn't just happen the way it happened
anchoring
first initial answer
adjustment
change original answer, usually based off of general world knowledge