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66 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Memory Set
A set of items in STM that can be compared against a test item to determine if the test item is stored there.
Self-terminating search
A search that stops as soon as the test item is sucessfully matched to an item n the memory set
Exhaustive Search
A search that continues until the test item is compared with all items in the memory set
To create a visual or verbal code for a test item so it can be compared with the memory codes of items stored in STM
To sequentially compare a test item with items in STM to determine if there's a match
A measure of how much response time changes for each unit of change along the x-axis (memory set size)
Phonological Loop
A component of Baddeley's working memory model that maintains and manipulates acoustic information.
Visuospatial scratch (sketch) pad
A component of Baddeley's working memory model that maintains and manipulates visual/spatial information.
Central Executive
A component of Baddeley's working memory model that manages the use of working memory.
Multi-modal code
An integration of memory codes such as combining visual and verbal codes.
Long-term memory
Memory that has no capacity limits and holds information from minutes to an entire lifetime.
Control Process
A strategy that determines how information is processed
Verbal repetition of information in an attempt to learn it.
Semantic elaboration of information to make it easier to remember.
Creating visual images to make material easier to remember.
Rote Learning
Learning through repetition rather than through understanding.
Serial position effect
The ability to recall words at the beginning and end of a list better than words in the middle.
Primacy effect
The better recall of words at the beginning of a list.
Recency effect
The better recall of words at the end of a list.
Knowledge acquisition
Storage of information in LTM
Retrieval strategy
A strategy for recalling information from LTM
Retrieval fluency
the ease with which an item can be recalled
Spaced Retrieval
Repeated testing of information at spaced intervals
Tip of the tongue (TOT)
A retrieval state in which a person feels he or she knows the information but cannot immediately retrieve it.
naturalistic study
a study of the TOT state in which people record these events as they occur outside the laboratory.
Spontaneous retrieval
a retrieval that occurs without making a conscious effort to recall information.
Cognitive interview
The use of cognitively based retrieval techniques to improve recall
direct memory test
A test that asks people to recall or recognize past events
indirect memory test
a test that does not explicitly ask about past events but is influenced by memory of past events.
Implicit memory
Memory evaluated by indirect memory tests.
Recognition memory
deciding whether an item had previously occurred in a specified context
Conceptually driven process
a process that is influenced by a person's strategies
data-driven process
a process that is influenced by the stimulus material
Episodic memory
Memory of specific events, including when and where they occurred.
Semantic memory
Memory of general knowledge not associated with a particular context
procedural memory
Memory for actions, skills, and operations
Facilitation in the detection or recognition of a stimulus by using prior information
Levels of processing
A theory that proposes that "deeper" (semantic) levels of processing enhance memory.
maintenance rehearsal
rehearsal that keeps information active in STM
incidental learning task
A task that requires people to make judgments about stimuli without knowing that they will later be tested on their recall of the stimuli
primary associates
words that are strongly associated with each other, as typically measured by asking people to provide associations to words.
percentage of occasions in which a word is followed by its primary associate during free recall of words.
structural coding
a memory code that emphasizes the physical structure of the stimulus.
phonemic coding
a memory code that emphasizes the pronunciation of the stimulus
semantic coding
a memory code that emphasizes the meaning of the stimulus
noncued recall
recall that occurs without hints or cues provided by the experiementer
cued recall
recall that occurs with hints or cues, such as providing the questions asked during the judgment phase of a task.
imprecise elaboration
provision or generation of additional material unrelated to remembered material.
precise elaboration
provision or generation of additional material closely related to remembered material.
generation of items by participants in an experiment, rather than the provision of these items by the experimenter.
distinctive item
an item different in appearance or meaning from other items
primary distinctiveness
an item distinct from other items in the immediate context.
secondary distinctiveness
an item distinct from items stored in LTM
emotional distinctiveness
items that produce an intense emotional reaction
flashbulb memory
a memory of an important event that caused an emotional reation.
processing distinctiveness
creation of a memory code that makes that memory distinct from other memories.
encoding specificity principle
a theory that states that the effectiveness of a retrieval cue depends on how well it relates to the initial encoding of an item.
mood-dependent memory
memory that is improved when people are tested under conditions that recreate their mood when they learned the material.
transfer-appropriate processing
encoding material in a manner related to how the material will be used later.
problem-oriented acquisition
encoding material in a manner that is helpful for its later use in solving problems.
fact-oriented acquisition
encoding material in a manner that emphasizes factual knowledge without emphasizing its application.
concrete-abstract dimension
extent to which a concept can be represented by a picture.
imagery potential
ease with which a concept can be imagined
association value
the number of verbal associations generated for a concept
dual-coding theory
a theory that memory is improved when items can be represented by both verbal and visual memory codes.
relational information
information specifying how concepts are related.