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65 Cards in this Set

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Kosslyn (1978)
Visual/Spatial or abstract?
-Mental scanning with objects in triangle. Takes longer to scan objects that were visually far appart. Island map showed same effect.
-Measured response time.
-liner relationship between distance and time.
Shepard and Metzlar (1971)
-people asked to judge if two shapes turned in different directions were the same. Requried mental turning. Those turned a further degree took longer to rotate mentally.
-indicates spatial imagrey
Brooks study
task specific memory (remember attention visual scanning exercize)
Moyer (1973)
Asked to compair the size of two imagined objects. (A wolf and a moose or a wolf and a roach).
-Took longer when size difference between animals is smaller.
-evidence that for things closer in size we make a mental image and compair.
Wallace (1984)
Two lines the same size. Asked to imagine a V over them...made the same mistake in misjudging line length as they did without the line overtop.
-evidence for visual imagrey.
Kerr (1983)
both blind and sighted people asked to imagine the eject button on a disk man. Both faster when asked to imagine it next to dice rather than Car.
-Indicates that they don't have to zoom in next to dice.
-Blind people are the same. Have similar mental imagrey.
Kerr (1983)
Blind and sighted told to imagine a tree either close to a house or far away.
People both blind and sighted then asked if there was a tree in the picture later. More likely to remember it if it was near the house whether or not they could see.
What's the deal with L.H.? Farrah et al (1988)
-patient had bi-lateral temporal lobe damage. ("What" pathway)
-terrible at visual imagry tasks...couldn't ID colors or shapes.
-normal on spatial tasks
-Image scanning and mental rotation.
Bisiach & Luzzatti (1978)
-right hemisphere parietal lobe damage. Visual neglect in left visual field.
-Asked to remember a familiar place.
-only report buildings on right side. Points to overlap between visual and spatial imagrey. It has both components.
carpenter et al. (1999)
Subjects asked to do a mental rotation task.
-increase in parietl lobe blood flow (where pathway.)
-Blood flow remains the same in temporal lobe (what pathway.)
Le Bihan et al. (1988)
-people shown a visual stimulus (occipital lobe blood flow increases)
-Shown blank screen -blood decreases.
-asked to imagine stimulus blood flow increase in occipital lobe.
Chambers and reisberg
duck rabbit and necker cube.
-can create a mental image, but can't see it other way unless they draw it out.
What was sperling's experiement?
Had people look at three rows of letters. Asked to memorize as many as possible.
-tested on letters. People could only remember roughly 4 of them, but if they were directed to a line they could remember most in that line and no others. Proves that we have an image of the whole thing, it just lasts for enough time for us to see 3 or 4 letters.
-remember much less after a delay beyond .3 seconds
Iconic memory
short term visual memory
-large capacity
-fades quickly, roughly 250 msecs.
-need to direct spatial attention to an area to do pattern recognition
Echoic memory
Auditory (sensory) memory.
-lasts 2-4 seconds without rehersal.
serial position curve (murdock, 1962)
Primacy and recency effects.
digit span
7 + or - 2 units. Can store more if you chunk.
-doesn't correlate with much of anything, because it is not the way we have to remember in real life.
Active span test.
must solve math problems between remembered words. Items must be activly maintained with attention.
-does correlate to things like grades and SAT scores.
Baddeley (1986) Slave Systems
Visospatial Sketchpad, and Phonological loop. Both feed back and forth to central executive.
proof of echoic memory
that we make sound alike errors due to phonological loops.
vallar & Baddeley (1986)
People asked to either say outloud or memorize a list of words that were one or 2 sylabuls.
-People remembered more 1 than 2 sylabul words.
-how long it takes you to say the word matters for rehersal
What part of the brain is responsible for mainenence rehersal?
-left hemasphere (responsible for language.)
-Speech areas 44 and 6 (Broca's Area)
-Supramaginal gyrus seems to help you understand but not produce speech.
Are the visuospatial sketchpad and the phonological loop the same?
-no. If you say tatata outloud it interferes with phonological loop (making you remember less words and make fewer sound alike errors)
-Does not interfear with remembering shapes.
Santa, 1977
If shapes are arranged in a pattern we are better at recognizing them in the same pattern than in a line. If words representing shapes are shown however we are faster at recognizing them in a ilne than in order.
what does the central executive do (at least if you're not denet)
It divides up or houses task-general mental resources.
-inhibits impulses and distractions.
-interperates and analyizes.
-holds info during a delay.
what evidence is there for a central executive.
monkey food study.
-monkeys leasioned frontal lobes do badley at remembering where food is (In area 46)
Delayed matching to sample.
-3 groups, frontal lesions, temporal lesions, and normals.
-2 conditions delayed and imediate matching
-4 types of trials.
-spatial and temporal
what evidence is there for a central executive.
monkey food study.
-monkeys leasioned frontal lobes do badley at remembering where food is (In area 46)
Delayed matching to sample
In the experiment, frontal conrex needed to maintian or retrieves spatial information.

Frontal cortex not needed to maitain or recieve temporal information
-Practice with short term memory notes
Wisconsin Card Sorting Task
People had to figure out the rules... sorting by shape, number and color.
-normals could change strategies
-people with frontal lobe damage can't stop using past response.
(couldn't inhibit distractors and impulses) PHINEAS GAGE.
Conclusions about central executive.
-Not a place but a system.
-central executive and 2 slave systems (phonological loop and visospatial sketchpad)
Blocking experiment.

light, noise, shock pairings in rats.
-measure bar pressing/ freezing.
-Rats learned to barpress for food.
-One group exposed to a tone followed by a shock.
-other exposed to tone followed by shock and shock alone. (Random)
-group one freezes at the tone group 2 does not. Tone has no predictive value for group 2. It doesn't create suprise and expectation.
What is competition in terms of learning?
Two stimuli can compete for predictive strength. (light and noise.)
Delta Rule
The strength of our connection is bases on the discrepancy between what you expect and what you get.
-connections can be strengthened or weakened with learning.
What is the effect on the serial position curve if words are presented quickly?
There is a smaller primacy effect. (don't get to practice first words as long.)
-no change in recency effect.
Craik and Watson (1973)
People asked to pay attention to most recent B word in a list of words.
-varying number of words between "b" words.
-Couldn't be using matinence rehersal, cause the extent to which they remembered them would be dependent on the number of words between B words.
Glenberg, smith and Green
people shown a number and told to remember it while saying napkin over at over again for 2,6, or 18 seconds.
-then told to remember the number.
-then told to remember the word. How long they rehersed the word didn't effect how well they remembered it.
Anderson and Bower (1972)
Elaborative rehersal:
one group was told to remember the sentence the doctor hated the lawyer. The other was told to embelish and remember the sentence. Better at remembering the embelished sentence.
Craik & Tulving (1975)
Elaborative rehersal:
People asked to decide whether a word fit into a sentence.
-some given simple
-some given complex sentences.
-those with complex sentences remembered better.
Hyde and Jenkins (1973)
shallow V. deep processing...
Told to either moniter the words for A and Q's or rate the word for pleasentness.
-remembered rated words better.
-two more contitions...where memory test is a suprise vs. remembered intentionaly.
-Trying to remember had no effect on performance on this task.
Organization is critical to memory.
-finding patterns
-Nemonimcs (help us remember specifics, but inhibit connections between bits of knowledge)
-method of loci.
Organization is critical to memory.
-finding patterns
-Nemonimcs (help us remember specifics, but inhibit connections between bits of knowledge)
-method of loci.
state dependent learning
sensory motar model of memory storage
-we store info near where it is intially processed.
Martin et al
People presented with a black and white drawing of a wagon and asked to "name it" "Name it's color" or "name it's action."
-brain lights up near where color is processed. (in temporal lobe)
-when we think of the objects motion an area near where we experience motion lights up
VER vs. JBR and SBY
VER can name natural (visual) things
-damage to motar area of brain

JBR and SBY can name man made things (active things) Based on damage to object area of brain (occipital lobe)
Explicit/ implicit
facts (semantic)small pieces, events (episodic)ghestalt

skills and habits (prcedural)
-classical conditioning
-non-associative learning.
retrograde amnesia
people cannot retrieve old memories (are memories timestamped?)
lost ability to create new longterm memory.
-unable to make new explicit memories. Learned not to ask about uncle. Could make new implicit memories.
-tower of Hanoi
jacoby (1983)
Implicit vs. explicit testing
-studied a list of words
-studied antonym pairs
or generate antonym pairs.
Either had to recognize word from a list or name a briefly presented word.
-better at picking out from list of deeply processed
-better at seeing word if they just looked at list, cause they'd seen it. Evidence for distinction between explicit and implicit memory
connectionist approach to memories
-connections form between layers when learning.
-the more connections or CONTEXT the more retrevial points you will have to get to the info.
principal of cognitive economy
-store only nessisary properties
-store at most general level
-cow example
-disproven, we are faster at remembering many stepped typical examples than examples that take only a few steps but are wierd like hoofs.
the fan effect-Anderson (1974)
given sentences
-some share words.
-faster at recognizing the sentences that didn't shre words.
Bahrick: retrieval curve
forget things quickly in first 2-3 years. After that it levels out until about 30 years. (probably more due to aging)
Owens, Bower and Black (1979)
we remember the ghestalt better if we have a context (pregnancy story)
increased recall, but also intrusion errors.
retrieval-induced forgetting
learn a list of categorized words
-practice some expemplars from categories.
-wait 30 minutes and then test.
non-practiced exemplars from practiced categories recalled less than exemplars from non-praciced categories.
-practicing some members of a category forces us to inhibit other members of category.
-strawberry inhibited in both red and fruit category even if it was only practiced in fruit category.
Reder (1982) Plausable retrieval
red a paragraph then asked to judge whether sentences were exactly in the paragraph or plausibly in the paragraph.
-imediately they are better at judging exactness.
-after 2 days they are better at judging plausablitiy.
Reder (1982) Plausable retrieval
red a paragraph then asked to judge whether sentences were exactly in the paragraph or plausibly in the paragraph.
-imediately they are better at judging exactness.
-after 2 days they are better at judging plausablitiy.
Loftus et al, 1979
subject viewed movie with stop sign or yeild sign
-half subjects were asked accurate questions. Other half were asked leading question.
-got the answer wrong 80% of time when missled.
-then give an forced choice between right answer and another answer.
-only right half of time.
-seems that memory had erased other memory.
-people believed they were not mislead
can people be mislead in to believing fake childhood memories?
-more than 25% can
-more if the memory is plausable. Less if it is really strange.
people are more easily lead under hypnosis...power of suggestion is stronger.
-could be encouraged to remember a B in a liscence plate they had seen that did not have one.
important for memory storage (H.M.) and alcohalics.
what is required for transfer from short term to longterm memory?
what evidence is there for distincions btween Short term memory and longterm memory?
recency and primacy are subject to different effects ie timing between words.