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97 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Abduction
reasoning that generates hypotheses to explain puzzling facts
ACT
Adaptive Control of Thought; a computational theory of thinking developed by John Anderson
Affective computing
study of computing technology that relates to, arises from, or deliberately influences emotions
Algorithm
a step-by-step procedure for solving a problem
Amygdala
almond-shaped part of the brain involved in emotions such as fear
Analogy
mental processes that makes connections between relations in two sets of objects
Anthropology
the study of origins, distribution, social relations, and culture of human beings
Artificial Intelligence
the study of how computers can be programmed to percieve, reason, and act
Backprogagation
learning algorithm in feedforward networks that adjusts the strengths of the links between neurons
Bayesian network
a directed graph that can be used to reason with probabilistic information
Cone-based reasoning
reasoning by analogy
Chaos
property of a dynamic system that is highly sensitive to small changes
Cognitive grammar
approach to linguistics that rejects the traditional separation of syntax and semantics
Cognitive science
the interdisciplinary study of mind and intelligence
Coma
state of deep unconsciousness caused by disease or injury
Computation
physical process with states that represent states of another system and with transition between states that amount to operations on the representations
Concept
mental representation of a class of objects or events that belong together, usually corresponding to a word
Conceptual change
process in which new concepts are constructed by joining or juxtaposing old ones
Connectionism
approach to cognitive science that models thinking by artificial neural networks
Consciousness
mental state involving attention, awareness, and qualitative experience
Cortex
outer layer of the brain, responsible for many higher cognitive functions
CRUM
`Computational-Representational Understanding of the Mind; the hypothesis that thinking is performed by computations operating on representations
Culture
the way of life of a society, including beliefs and behaviors
Data structure
an organization of information in a computer program
Deduction
reasoning from premises to a conclusion such that if the premises are true then the conclusion must also be true
Distributed artificial intelligence
problem solving that requires communication among more than one computer, each of which possess some intelligence
Distributed cognition
problem solving that requires communication among more than one thinker
Distributed representation
neural networks that use patterns of activity in multiple nodes or neurons to stand for objects or situations
Dopamine
neurotransmitter involved in reward pathways in the brain
Dualism
philosophical view that the mind consists of two seperate substances, soul and body
Dynamic systejm
collection of interacting objects whose changes are describable by mathematical equations
Electroencephalogram (EEG)
recording of electrical activity in the brain
Embodiment
property of having a body and experiencing the world by means of it
Emotion
positive or negative mental state that combines physiological input with cognitive apprasial
Emotional intelligence
ability to deal effectively with the emotions of oneself and others
Empiricism
the philosophical view that knowledge comes primarily from sensory experience
Explanation schema
mental representation of a pattern of casual connections
Feedforward network
artificial neural network in which the flow of activity is in one direction, from input neurons to output neurons
Frame
data structure that represents a concept or schema
Functionalism
version of materialism according to which mental states are defined by their functional relations, not by any particular kind of physical realization
Hebbian learning
process in neural networks that strengthens the association between two neurons that are simultaneously active
Hippocampus
brain region involved in the acquisition of memories
Image
mental structure that is similar to what it represents
Induction
reasoning that introduces uncertainity
Inheritance
form of inference in which information is transferred from a higher or lower structure
Innate
a representation or process that is genetic rather than learned
Insula (insular cortex)
brain region that integrates information from many bodily senses
Intentionality
property of a representation or mental state that it is about some aspect of the world
Lesion
abnormal change in an organ such as the brain
Linguistics
the study of language
Link
connection between two artificial neurons that enables one to influence the activity of the other
Local representation
artificial neural network in which each node stands for a single concept or proposition
Logic
the study of valid reasoning
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
technique that uses magnets to produce images of the structure and function of organs
Materialism
philosophical view that minds are purely physical
Meaning
the content og a representation that results from its relations to other representations and the world
Mechanism
system of interconnected parts that produce regular changes
Memory
storage of information, either temporary (short-term or working memory) or permanent (long-term)
Mental model
mental structure that approximately stands for something in the world
Mental representation
a structure or process in the mind that stands for something
Metaphor
use of language to understand and experience one kind of thing in terms of another
Model
structure that approximately represents some objects or events
Multiagent system
interacting collection of computers capable of intelligent action
Neural network
interconnected group of neurons
Neuron
nerve cell
Neuroscience
study of the structure and functioning of brains
Parallel
process in which more than one computation is performed at teh same time
Parallel constraint satisfaction
process in which a problem is solved by using a parallel algorithm to find the best assignment of values to interconnected aspects of the problem
Parallel distributed processing
approach to cognitive science that models thinking by artificial neural networks with distributed representations
Philosophy
study of the fundamental nature of knowledge, existence, and morality
Positron emission tomography (PET)
technique that uses radioactive isotopes to produce images of the chemical function of organs such as blood flow in the brain
Prefrontal cortex
area of the brain at the front of the front of the cortex, responsible for the highest cognitive functions such as reasoning
Production rule
a representation of the form IF something THEN something
Psychology
study of the minds of humans and other animals
Rationalism
the philosophical view that knowledge comes primarily by reasoning that is independent of sensory experience
Recurrent network
neural network in which the output of some neurons feeds back via intervening connections to become input to them
Relaxation
process in which an artificial neural network reaches a state of stable activations
Representation
a structure or activity that stands for something
Robot
machine capable of performing complex physical acts similar to ones done by humans
Rule
a mental representation of the form IF something THEN something
Schema
a mental representation of a class of objects, events, or practices
Search
a computational process of looking for or carrying out a sequence of actions that lead to desired states
Situated action
action that results from being embedded in a physical or social world
SOAR
State, Operator, And Result; a computational theory of thinking developed by Allen Newell and others
Social cognition
study of how people think about each other
Social epistemology
study of social practices that encourage or inhibit the development of knowledge
Somatic marker
brain signal corresponding to states of the body relevant to emotions
Source analog
set of objects, properties, and relations that suggests conclusions about a target analog
Spike train
firing pattern of a neuron, consisting of a sequence of firing episodes
Spreading activation
computational process in which the activity of one structure leads to the activity of an associated structure
Syllogism
kind of deduction in which the premises and conclusions have forms such as "All A or B" and "No A are B"
Synapse
space in which a signal passes from one neuron to another
Target analog
set of objects, properties, and relations that can be learned about by comparison to a source analog
Theory
set of hypotheses that explain observations
Thought experiment
use of the imagination to investigate nature
Ventromedial prefrontal cortex
the bottom-middle part of the prefrontal cortex
Whorf hypothesis
conjecture that language determines how we perceive and think about the world