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188 Cards in this Set

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Wilhem Wundt
-first truly psychological system
-method of "self-observation"
-introspection
-structuralism
Introspection
method in which one looks carefully inward, reporting on inner sensations and experiences
Edward Tichner
-structuralism (first major movement or school of psychological thought
-thought introspection was unscientific
Structuralism
the strucutre of the conscious mind, the senstaion, images, and feeling that were the very elements of the mind's structure
Hermann von Ebbinghaus
-first to invent a reasonably scientific, enduring method to study memory and mental process
John B Watson
-observable, quantifiable behavior was proper topic of psychology
-behavorism
WWII
-wartime psychologists were forced to concieve of human behavior in different fashion
Skinner
-operant conditioning
-advocate of behavorism
-learning
Noam Chomsky
-language acquisition problam (LAD)
-rejection of behavorism in explaining language
-impact of review of skinner's book on language on experimental psychology
Linguistics
-language was a behavior and a learned one
-language issue was big reason behavorism declined
Pavlov
-conditioning and learning
-classical conditioning
-enthusiasm for psychology of behavior
Four ways of knowing
Non-empirical
-authority
-logic
Empirical
-intuition
-science
Basic scientific Method
1.make observation
2.generate theory
3.generate hypothesis (specific prediction)
4.test hypothesis/run expt
5.if outcome of test is consistent w/ hypoth repeat
6.if outcome isn't consistent go to step 2 and repeat
Experiments
-randomly assign participants to 2+ conditions
-random assignment allows for strong inferences about casuality
Relationship bwt cognitive psy and social psy
-social psy studies behavior of 2 or more ppl
-cog studies behavior of individuals
Relationship bwt cog psy and clinical psy
-clinical studies abnormal minds
-cog studies normal (intact) minds
Relationship bwt cog psy and personality psy
-personality studies how minds differ among ppl (variability or traits)
-cog studies similiarities among ppl (components of mind)
Relationship bwt cog psy and neuropsychology
-neuro studies the neural underpinnings of the mind
-cog studies the mind and provides more abstract, functional description of mind
Relationship bwt cog psy and developmental psy
-developmental studies development of the mind
-cog studies the developed mind
Information-Processing Approach
-described cognition as the coordinated operation of active mental processes w/in a multicomponent memory system
-general model of the human memory and cognitive systems that went hand in hand w/ broad approach known as information processing
Cognitive psy vs cognitive neuropsychology
-"car engine" analogy
-cog psy: cognition (mind)= software
-cog neuropsy: brain = hardware
Linguistics
-have universals
-all human languages are more similiar than different
-have specific cognitive mechanism that provides scaffolding for learning lang
Computer
-metaphor to human mind
-has memory systems
-symbolic representations (can store and manipulate them)
-hardware/software distinction (physical devices vs programs)
-made it no longer unscientific to talk about memory and symbols
3 Basic assumptions of cognitive psy
-mental processes exist
-mental processes can be studied scientifically
-humans are active information processors (i.e. it is hard to relax and not think about anything)
Levels of Analysis of Sciences
-scale (size) differences: big down to small
-complexity differences: very complex to simple
-experimental control differences: no control to complete control
-sample size differences: one culture to very large
List of Sciences (for anaylsis)
anthropology
social psy
cog psy
cog neuroscience
neuroscience
biology
biochemistry
chemistry
particle physics
Cognitive Science
-study of human thought, using all available scientific techniques and including all relevant scientific disciplines for exploring and investigating cognition
-goal is to develop comphrensive theory of cognition
-subdisciplines: neurosciences, computer science, linguistics, philosophy, anthropology, cognitive psy
3 DV's used in cog psy
-reaction time: how long takes to perform task
-mistakes: error rates or types of error
-verabal protocals: talk aloud thoughts while performing task
3 brain-imaging devices
-ERP
-PET
-fMRI
ERP
-event related potentials
-put electrodes on head and record electrical changes
-good temporal resolution but poor spatial resolution
temperol vs spatial resolution
-temperol resolution: accurate measure of electrical charge (brain behavior) w/ repsect to time
-spatial resolution: localization of part of brain that is active
PET
-position emission torrgraphy
-increase blood flow (use radioactive tracer)
-poor temporal resolution, so so spatial resolution
fMRI
functual magnetic resosance imagining
-measure blood flow in brain (oxygenated-blood)
-so so temporal resolution, good spatial resolution
Basic assumptions of information processing approach
-paradigm
-computer metaphor
-human mind is equivalent to collection of memory systems plus info processing operations
-serial (work at one time), independent processing stages
Computers: 4 components
Computer: keyboard (input)
I
CPU <=>storag(hardrive)
(memory/processing speed)
I
monitor (output)
Humans: 4 components
motor system(executive branch)

STM <=> LTM

sensory memory

perception/sensation (input)
Standard Theory (Atkinson & Shiffrin)
-computer metaphor
-sensory memory, STM, LTM
Sensory Memory
-information buffer
-info held fo short time so can be used
-more than one: iconic and echoic
Iconic Memory
-visual sensory memory
Echoic Memory
-auditory sensory memory
short-term memory
-short term store, working memory, immediate (primary) memory
-characteristics:
attention/consciousness
limited capacity (7+/- 2 "chunks" of info)
control process
Control processes
-operate in STM, allow you to manipulate info
-rehearsal: keep info active
-encoding: STM to LTM
-retrieval
-operators: rules that allow you to do cognitive activites
Long-term memory
-long term store, secondary memory
-repository of all info you've learned
-more than one type and they're independent of one another
declarative and procedural
declarative memory
-can talk about info
-info you can retrieve from STM and be aware of
-episodic and semanitc
episodic memory
for auotbiographical experiences (what you experienced)
semantic memory
dictionary type of info
procedural memory
-how to do something
-procedures/actions
-hard to describe verbally
Iconic Memory
-short duration, can hold alot of info, can be overwritten
-approx 250 ms
Sperling: iconic memory
how much info is held in iconic memory?
-rapid sequences of slides and report as many letters/#s as can
-conditions: whole or partial report
Sperling: whole report results
-37%
-on average reported 4.5 items
Sperling: partial report results
-if short interval, report 3 of 4 items which means 9 out 12
-partial report was sample subset of info in iconic memory
-partial report with dark pre & post stimulus is similiar effect to flash of lightening
Averbach and Coriell: iconic memory
-how does info in iconic memory vanish through time?
-either passive decay or actively overwritten
-12 item array, report specific letter
-ques: either letter above underscore or letter in astric spot
-prediction was if actively overwritten then second condtion should be harder b/c asteric is spacially where letter should be
Averbach and Coriell: results
-underscore que results were similiar to sperling partial report results
-2nd condition was near impossible
-means info doesn't just passively decay but can be actively overwritten by new visual info
Why difference bwt whole and partial report in sperling's expt?
-instead of visual error, made mistakes in auditory (3 -> T)
-in order to perform taks, info briefly in iconic, take into STM, convery into auditory memory
-this takes time so after 4/5 items stuff in iconic memory has decayed
-in whole report have bottleneck in STM, not in partial report
Echoic Memory
-auditory sensory memory system
-visual info is spatial arrayed vs auditory info is temporally spread out
-last bwt 2-4 seconds so can mentally replay what heard
Darwin et al. : echoic memory
-3-ear man procedure: hear message in left ear or right ear or both simaltaneously
-had to report one of the messages
Darwin: results
-whole report: average of 4 items reported
-partial report: 5 items
-capacity isn't as great as iconic but duration is longer
Pattern recognition
-templates
-feature-detection
-interactive-activation
Templates
-stored models of all catergorizable patterns
-simple
-limits: problem of invariance and very slow
Feature-Detection
-very simple pattern, a fragment,or component that can appear in combination with other features across a wide variety of stimulus patterns
Feature-Detection: basic idea and advantages
-patterns are composed of simple features that are combined to represent complex features
-solves invariance problem
-fast
-economical (ie store 1000's of features or millions of templates)
-physiological evidenc
Feature-Detection: limits
-context effect
-perceive pattern different
THE CAT example
Hubel and Wiesle: physiological evidence of feature-detection
-hypercomplex cells respond to bars of light with certain size and orientation in certian direction
-simple cells respond to light stimulus in specific region of visual light
-complex cells respond to bars of light in certain angles
-agreed that have "grandmother" cells (rep. sophisticated features)
Interactive-Activation
-basic idea: the Pandemonium model
Pandemonium model
-model of pattern recognition
-feature detection model
-parallel processing (simultaneous not "one-after-the-other" processess
Bottum-up (data driven) processing
-normal perceptual processing
-way info comes into head from outside
-processing is driven by the stimulus pattern, the incoming data
-slights contribution made by the cognitive systems
top-down (conceptually-driven) processing
-context and higher-level knowledge influence lower-level process
-bias or influenc present due to knowledge already in head
-contribution of existing knowledge
Pollack and Pickett: auditory pattern recognition
-demonstrate conceptually driven processing
-recorded long segments of convo and splice out sentences for individual word
-play entire sentence or individual word spliced
Pollack and Pickett: results
-words in converstaion (in context) had 100% accuracy
-words in isolation had 50% accuracy
-context of message is important in percieving stream of speech
Warren and Warren: auditory pattern recognition
-took sentence fragments with one word ambigous
-ambigious word comes at end of sentence
-report back sentence
Warren and Warren: results
-demonstrates also that echoic memory is important
-found the perception and speech are highly dependent on context, on top-down processing
ie "*eel shoe -> heel shoe
vs "orange *eel" -> orange peel
Two metaphors for attention
-process: corresponds to process that allows you to select info for processing

-resource: a limited resource that can allocate in different ways for different things
Attention as a process
-alertness/arousal
-orienting response
-input selection
Alterness/Arousal
-reticular activating system is part of brain stem responsible for overall alterness
-most basic senses as a necessary state of the nervous system
Orienting Response
-reflexive redirection of attention that orients you toward the unexpected stimuli
-attention drawen to novel/unexpected stimuli b/c could be dangerous
-related to habituation/dishabituation learning
Habituation
a gradual reduction of the orienting response back to basline
Input selection
-class demonstration about attention blindness
-change blindness: subjectively taken in lots of visual info BUT illusion b/c do far less visual processing than we percieve
-attention is necessary to bind features and form single perception
-spotlight attention, object based, and feature integration
Posner et al. : spatial cueing task
-spotlight metaphor
-had 3 cue types (valid, invalid, neutral)
-report on target (either left or right)
-object is to shift attention to target from cue
Posner: results
-neutral cue was baseline, from there valid cue faciliated RT while invalid cue was a cost to RT
-by shifting attention to location of target, process target better (enhance visual processing)
-"spotlight" attention
-shift attention independently of moving eyes
"spotlight" attention
-mental attention-focusing mechanism that prepares you to encode stimulus information
-internal spotlight you can shift but takes time (like orienting repsonse but voluntary)
-3 components
3 components of visual spotlighting
-disengage attention
-move attention to new location
-re-engage attention
Duncan: "object based"
-is attention focused on spatial location or object?
-had 2 objects: each object has 2 dimensions to vary
-had to judge 2 dimensions of one object or 1 dimension of each object
Duncan: results
-engage attention on particular object
-more accurate when had to identify one dimension per object (2 features 2 objects)
-less accurate when had 2 features 1 object
Treisman and Gelade: "feature integration"
-shown array, look for target item (vaired set size)
-target could not be in set sometimes
-2 conditions: conjuction and disjunction
Conjuction and Disjunction conditions
-conjunction: AND (2 features bound together)
target = blue and "S"

-disjunction: OR (single feature)
target= blue or "S"
Treisman and Gelade: results
Disjunction
-set size wasn't really a factor
-don't really need to use attention
-"pop out" affect
Conjunction
-RT was really affected by set size
-employ attention
-b/c attention is limited have to physically move attentionto array
-in no conjuction condition, have to search entire array before response
Input selection: where is the filter in attention?
Visual selection
-sensory filtering and mental filtering (spotlight attention)
-vision is limited by fovea
Auditory selection
-no low level filtering (no equivalent to fovea)
-only have mental filterning (attention)
-focus on auditory selection b/c only have attention
"cocktail party" phenomenon
-how do we pay attention to an recognize what one person is saying when we are surrounded by other spoken messages?
-i.e. hear our own name across the room while engaged in conversation
Cherry: when auditory selection occurs
-listen to 2 messages simulatneously (one in each ear)
-task is to shadow one of the messages
Cherry: results
-repeat back very good but very monatone
-suggests that they're not processing info they're shadowing
-poor content memory
-1 sec lag bwt hearing message and reporting
Cherry: what happens if you switch the message in the ear they're not shadowing?
People can detect
-speaker change (male vs female)
-speech vs nonspeech (i.e. chime, tone)
People can't detect
-language (english to french)
-content message (i.e. report words)
When did Cherry propose attention/selection happen?
-very early on
-Type I : sensory anaylsis
-can't set filter on higher level content
Broadbent's filter theory
-auditory mechanism acts as a selective filter
-filter can be tuned or switched to any one of the messages based on characteristics such as loudness or pitch
-only one message can be passed through the filter at a time
Treisman: Type II filtering
-hear 2 messages simaltenously, shadow one of the 2 messages (i.e. shadow #1)
-in middle, abrupt change in content of message
i.e. #1 "while bill was walking through the forest/ a bankd can lend you $
#2 "if you want to buy a car/ a tree fell acorss his path
Treisman: results
-at junctor have representation of meaning (expectation)
-use top-down processing and switch channeling to other message (2nd half) w/o being aware of this
Indication of Treisman's results
-later filtering based on content of message
-top-down processing
-Type II (middle) selection
attenuation theory
-increase volume on message attending to and decrease volume of other message, still get through
-relevant info gets through -> shift attention
-consistent w/ cocktail phenomeno
Norman's Pertinence Model
-lots of stuff comes from echoic and makes contact w/ bits in LTM
-bits of info in LTM that vary in terms of pertinence (importance/relevance)
-size of circle in LTM represents relevance (bigger=more important)
-have momentary importance of info, whether caused by permanent or transitory factors
Johnson and Heinz
-3 ear method
-play 1,2, or 3 messages that are physically and semantically different(simaltenously)
-primary task: shadow message (i.e. #1)
-secondary task: detect light bulb that randomly turns on
-DV: RT for detecting light
-prediction is that task should interfere w/ 2nd task
Johnson and Heinz: results and interpretations
-high cost for performin 2 tasks together
-attention is limited
-attention is flexible
-attention can be allocated at multiple stages
-later selection tends to be more limited in capacity (attention is like mental fuel)
-later selection is both slower and more prone to error
Multimode model of attention
-3 stages
Stage I (early): sensory analysis
Stage II (middle): grammatical and semantic anaylsis
Stage III (late): awareness
Automatic Processes
-happen whether want them to or not
-i.e. stroop task
-happens w/o intention
-not open to awareness
-do not consume mental resources
-rapid (<1s)
Controlled Processess
-happen w/ intention (deliberate)
-open to awareness
-consume mental resources
-slow (>1s)
Shiffrin & Schneider
How does automaticity develop?
-task: visual search
-2 conditions: consistent mapping and varied mapping
-see target items and then determine if following displays contain target item(s)
-eventually get new target items and repeat
Consistent Mapping
-target and distractors are from seperate pools
-draw targets from same set and distractors from same set
-eventually become automated
Varied Mapping
-targets and distractors come for same pool
-entire set of items can be target and distractors
-discrimination will never become automated
Shiffrin & Schneider: results
-consistent mapping had close to 100% accuracy even as increased number of distractors
-varied mapping decreased in accuracy as increased number of distractor
-varied mapping was less accurate, slower, and affected by # of distractors
Necessary Conditions for automatic processes
-extensive practice
-consistent mapping (consistent manner throughout practices)
Advantages/Disadvantages of automaticity
Pros
-less resource demanding so can multitask
-transfer (2 tasks have to be similiar)
i.e. automatic process for throwing baseball, become automatic for throwing softball
Cons
-can lead to mistakes
-neg. transfer (perform 2nd task worse b/c of transfer)
i.e. drivingin Eng. when use to driving in US
Hemi-Neglect
-disruption or decreased ability to lookat something in the (often) left field of vision and pay attention to it
-usually damage to right parietal lobe
-disorder of attention in which one half of the perceptual world is neglected to some degree and cannot be attended to as completely or accurately as normal
Crowder and Morton: auditory persistence
-present 9 digits
-2 conditions: silent vocalization, active vocalization, and passive vocalization
Crowder and Morton: results
-lingering sensory trace fro the last sounds that were heard
-silent group showed substantial error on the last items b/c no audiotry sensory memory trace for them
-modality effect
Crowder and Morton: conclusions
-auditory sensory memory is similiar to visual sensory memory but details of storage and duration differ
-if attention is redirected during critical interval, info can be sent to STM preventing if from being lost
Modality Effect
superior recall of the end of the list when the auditory modde is used instead of the visual mode of presentation
Crowder and Morton Conditions
Silent Vocalization: saw numbers and read them silently
Active Vocalization: saw the listt and asked to name the digits out loud
Passive Vocalization: heard an accompanying tape recording the named the viewed digits for them
Biederman's Recognition by components model
-recognize objects by breaking them down into their components, then looking this combination of components in memory to see which object matches the combination
-have geons
2 aspects of patterns important to recognition by components
-first find the edges of objects
-second we carefully scan regions of the pattern where the lines intersect, usually places where deep concave angles are formed
Evidence for RBC, shortcomings
-if pattern is degrade, it matters where it was degraded
-esp tied to bottum-up processg
-suggests whole is percieved by first identifying the components
Pandemonium Model: aspects
-pattern encoded by set of data demons
-next computational demons act (feature analyzers)
-when computational demon matches stiumul feature, begins to shout
-cognitive demons listen to shouting
-match found causes cog. demons to begin shouting
-several cog. demons shout at once
-loudest cog demon is heard by decision demon (highest level)
-decision demon has final say in recognizing and categorizing the pattern
Two important ideas of pandemonium model
-feature detection model
-idea of parallel processing
Cognitive Science
scientific study of thought, learning, the brain-in short the scientific study of the mind
memory
mental processes of acquiring and retaining info for later retrieval and the mental storage system that enables these processes
cognition
the collection of mental processes and activities used in perceiving, remembering, thinking, and understanding as well as the acto of using those processes
ecological validity
generalizability to the real-world situations in which people think and act
reductionistic
attempting to understand complex events by breaking them down into their components
empiricism
observation as the basis for all science
tabula rosa
aristotle's insistence that the mind is a "blank slate" at birth
functionalism
the functions of consciousness rather than its structure were of interest
verbal learning
branch of experimental psychology that dealt with human subjects as they learned verbal material, stimuli composed of letters or sometimes words
metatheory
set of assumptions and guiding principles
reaction time
a measure of the time elapsed bwt some stimulus and the person's response to the stimulus
channel capacity
any channel (any physical device that transmits messages or information) has a limited capacity
encoding
the act of taking in information and converting it to a usable mental form
process model
a hypothesis about the specific mental processes that take place when a particular taks is performed
lexical decision task
"word/nonword task", a timed task in which people decide whether letter strings are or are not english words
word frequency effect
it takes significantly longer to judge words of lower frequency than it does to judge high-frequency words
sequentail stages of processing
a sequence of stages or processes that occur on every trial, a set of stages that completely account for mental processing in the task
independent and nonoverlapping
any single stage was assumed to finish its operation completely before the next stage in the sequence could begin, and the duration of any single stage had no bearing or influence on the other stage
parallel
simultaneously
verbal protocol
procedure in which participants are asked to verbalize their thoughts as they solve the problem
cognitive science
the study of human thought using all available scientific techniques and including all relevant scientific disciplines for exploring and investigating cognition
dissociation
a disruption in one component of mental functioning but no impairment of another
synapse
region where the axon terminals of one neuron and the dendrites of another come together
neocortex
-cerebral cortex
-top layer of the brain responsible for higher-level mental processes
cerebral lateralization
different functions or actions w/in the brain tend to rely more heavily on one hemispher or the other or tend to be performed differently in the two hemisphers
event-related potentials
the momentary changes in electrical activity of the brain when a particular stimulus is presented to the subject
retina
rods and cones, bipolar cells, and ganglion cells
fovea
small area where most of the cones lie that provides us w/ our most accurate precise vision
sensation
reception of stimulation from the environment and the initial encoding of that stimulation into the nervous system
perception
the process of interpreting and understanding sensory information
saccades
eye sweeps from one point to another in fast movements
fixations
pauses that interrupt eye movements
change blindness
failure to notice changes in visual stimuli when those changes occur during a saccade
inattentional blindness
we sometimes fail to see an object we are looking at directly, even a highly visible one, b/c our attention is directed elsewhere
visual persistenc
apparent persistence of a visual stimulus beyond its physical duration
span of apprehension
number of individual items recallable after any short display
whole report condition
subjects are to report any letters they can
partial report condition
only one of the row was to be reported
decay
passive process like fading
interference
forgetting caused by the effects of intervening stimulation or mental processing
backward masking
a later visual stimulus can drastically affect the perception of an earlier one
erasure
when the contents of visual sensory memory are degraded by subsequent visual stimuli
focal attention
mental process of visual attention, such as the mental redirection of attention when the partial report cue is presented
feature anaylsis
feature detection
-very simple pattern, a fragment, or component that can appear in combination w/ other features across a widely variety of stimulus patterns
repetition blindness
the tendency to not perceive a pattern, whether a word, a picture, or any other visual stimulus, when it is quickly repeated
geons
basic "primitives", simple 3-D geometric forms
agnosia
a failure or deficit in recognizing objects, either b/c the pattern of features cannot by synthesized into a whole or b/c the person cannot then connect the whole pattern to meaning
prosopagnosi
a disruption of face recognition
apperceptive agnosia
a basic disruption in perceiving patterns
associative agnosia
cannot associate the pattern with meaing
audition
sense of hearing
problem of invariance
the sounds of speech are not invariant from one time to the next
phoneme
language sound
attention
the mental process of concentrating effort on a stimulus or a mental event
input attention
the basic process of getting sensory information into the cognitive system
explicit processing
those involving conscious processing, conscious awareness that a task is being performed, and usually conscious awareness of the outcome of that performance
implicit processing
processing with no necessary involvment of conscious involvment
habituation
gradual reduction of the orienting response back to baseline
benefit or facilitation
a faster than baseling response resulting from the useful advance information
cost
a response slower than baseline b/c of the misleading cue
controlled attention
deliberate, voluntary allocation of mental effort or concentration
selective attention
the ability to attend to one source of information while ignoring or excluding other ongoing messages around us
filtering or selecting
the mental process of eliminating those distractions, eliminating unwanted messages
dual task or dual messag procedure
two tasks or messages are presented such that one task or message captures the person's attention as completely as possible
shadowing task
to repeat the message out loud as soon as it was heard
psychological refractory period
-attentional blink
-a brief-slow down in mental processing due to having processed another very recent event
automaticity
with little or no necessary involvment of a conscious, limited-attention mechanism
priming
a word automatically activates or primes its meaning in memory and as a consequence primes or activates meanings closely associated with it