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96 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
alzheimers disease
a condition that eventually results in severe memory defecits, especially effecting the ability to form new memorys.
focusing on the specific features of the environment or on certain thoughts or activities
Attenuation theory of attention
anne treisman's model of selective attention, that proposes that selection occurs in two stages. In the first stage, an attenuator analyzes the incoming message and lets through the attended message - and also the unattended message, but at a lower (attenuated) strength.
autobiographical memory
memory for dated events in a person's life. Autobiographical memory is a type of episodic memory
Automatic processing
processing that occurs automatically without the person intending to do it, and which also uses few cognitive resources. Automatic processing is associated with easy or well practiced task.
change blindness
difficultly in detecting changes in scenes that are presented one after the other. The changes are often easy to see once attention is directed to them, but are unusually undetected in the absence of appropriate attention.
cocktail party phenomenon
the ability to focus attention on one message and ignore others. The name is taken from the ability to pay attention to one conversation at a crowded party without attending to other conversations that are happening at the same time.
cognitive hypothesis
an explanation for the reminisence bump, which states that memories are better for adolescence and early adulthood because encoding is better during periods of rapid change that are followed by stability
the creation of outlandish false memories. Confabulation is associated with damage to prefrontal and sometimes temporal lobes
an event that has important consequences for a persons life. It has been hypothesized that this quality is a characteristic of events that become flashbulb memories.
consistency bias
The tendency for people top percieve their basic attitudes and behaviors as remaining fairly consistent over time. This bias can affect peoples memory for events in their lives
consolidation period
the time that it takes for memory consolidation to occur.
constructive approach to memory
the idea that what people report as memories are constructed by the person based on what actually happened plus additional factos such as expectations, other knowledge and other life experiences
controlled processing
processing that involves close attention. This term is especially associated with scheider and shiffrins experiment which showed that controlled processing was needed in the difficult, varied, mapping condition of their experiment, even after extensive practice.
declarative memory
memory that involved conscious recollections of events or facts that we have learned in the past.
deep processing
processing that involves attention to meaning and relating an item to something else. Deep processing is usually associated with elaborative rehearsal.
depth of processing
the idea that the processing that occurs as an item is being encoded into memory can be deep or shallow. Deep processing involves attention to meaning and is associated with elaborative rehearsal. Shallow processing involves repetition with little attention to meaning, and is associated with maintenance rehearsal.
dichotic listening
the procedure of presenting one message to the left ear and a different message to the right ear.
dictionary unit
a component of treismans attenuation theory of attention. This processing unit contains stored words and thresholds for activating the words. The dictionary unit helps explain why we can sometimes hear a familiar word, such as our name, in an unattended message.
distributed versus mass practice effect
memory is better if learning occurs in a number of short study sessions, with breaks in between, than if learning occurs in one long session
divided attention
the ability to pay attention to, or carry out, two or more different taks simultaneously
early-selection model
model of attention that explains selective attention by early filtering out of the unattended message. In broadbents model, the filtering step ovvurs before the message is analzyed to determine it's meaning.
egocentric bias
the tendency for people to see themselves in the best possible light. This bias can affect peoples memories for events in their lives.
elaborative rehearsal
rehearsal that involves thinking about the meaning of an item to be remembered or making connections between that item and prior knowledge
the process of aquiring information and transferring it into memory
encoding specificity
the principle that we learn information together with its contect. This means the presence of context can lead to enhanced memory for the information
episodic memory
memory for specific events that have happened to the person having the memory. These events are usually remembered as personal experience that occurred at a particular time and place. episodic and semantic memory, together, make up declarative memory.
event specific knowledge
as proposed by conway, individual events in a persons life that happen on a time scale of minutes or hours.
eyewitness testimony
testimony by eyewitnesses to a crime about what they saw during the commision of a crime
filter model of attention
\model of attention that proposes that selective attention is achieved by a filtering out of unattended messages. The first filter model of attention was proposed by donald broadbent.
flanker-compatibility task
aprocedure in which participants are instructed to respond to a target stimulus that is flanked, or surrounded by a distractor stimuli that they are supposed to ignore. The degree to which the distractor interferes with responding to the target is taken as an indication of whether the distractor stimuli are being processed.
flashbulb memory
memories of especially memorable events that have been claimed to be particularly vivid and accurate
general events
as proposed by conway, events in a persons life that happens over days weeks or months
implicit memory (nondeclarative memory)
memory that occurs when an experience affects a persons behavior, even though the person is not aware that he or she had the experience.
Korsakoff's syndrome
a condition caused by prolonged B1 deficiency that leads to destruction of areas on the fontal and temporal lobes which causes severe impairments in memory
late-selection model of attention
a model of attention that proposes that selection of stimuli for final processing does not occur until after the information in the message has been analzyed for its meaning
levels of processing (LOP)
part of levels of processing theory satets that there are different depths of processing that can be achieved information is being ecoded.
levels of processing theory
the idea that memory depends on how information is encoded with better memory being achieved when processing is deep than when processing is shallow. Deep processing involves attention to meaning and is associated with elaborative rehearsal. Shallow processing involves repetition with little attention to meaning and is associated with maintainance rehearsal
life-narrative hypothesis
an explanation for the reminiscence bump, which states that memories are beteer for adolescents and early adulthood because people assume their life identities duirng that time
lifetime periods
as proposed by conway, events in a persons life that span many years.
location-based attention
models of attention that propose that attention operates on what ever stimuli are at a particular location. This contrasts with object based attention in which attention is focused on a particular object.
long term potentiation (LTP)
the increased firing that occurs in a postsynaptic neuron due to prior activity at the synapse
maintenance rehearsal
rehearsal that involves repetition without any consideration of meaning or making connections to other information
medial temporal lobe (MTL)
an area in the temporal lobe that consists of the hippocampus and a number of surrounding structures. Damage to the MTL causes problems in forming new long term memories
memory consolidation
strengthening of the neural information representing a memory over time.
memory impairment hypothesis
the explanation of the misinformation effect that states that misleading postevent information impairs of replaces post event information impairs of replaces the memories that were formed during the original experiencing of an event.
misinformation effect
occurs when misleading information presented after a person witnesses an event can change how that person describes the event later
misleading postevent information (MPI)
the misleading information that causes the misinformation effect
narrative rehearsal hypothesis
the idea that we remember some life events better because we rehearse them. This idea was proposed by neisser as an explanation for "flashbulb memories"
persistence of vision
the continued perception of light for a traction of a second after the original light stimulus has been extinguished. Perceiving a trail of light from a moving sparkler is caused by the persistence of vision
phonological coding
coding in the mind in auditory form. An example of phonologival coding would be remembering something in terms of its sound. The letters "t" and "p" sound the same, they have similar phonological codes.
phonological loop
the part of working memory that holds and processes verbal auditory information
phonological similarity effect
an effect that occurs when letters or words that sound similar are confused. For example T and P are examples of two similar sounding letters could be confused
positive-change bias
the tendency for people to perceive that "things are getting better"
precueing procedure
a procedure in which participants are given a cue which will, usually, help them carry out a subsequent task. This procedure has been used in visual attention experiments in which participants are presented with a cue that tells them where to direct attention.
primacy effect
in a memory experiment in which a list of words is presented, enhanced memory for words presented at the beginning of the list
procedural memory
memory for how to carry out highly practiced skills. Procedural memory is a type of implicit memory, because although people can carry out a skilled behavior, they often cannot explain exactly how they are able to carry out this behavior
propaganda effect
when people are more likely to rate statements they have read or heard before as being true, just because of prior exposure to statements.
provactive interference
a situation in which information learned previously interferes with learning new information
recency effect
in a memory experiment in which a list of words is presented, enhanced memory for words presented at the end of the list
recovered memory
a term used to refer to the situation in which memories of traumatic experiences such as childhood abuse are recalled after many years during which the perception was not aware of these memories. The idea that these memories are "recovered" due to a special mechanism is controversial, many psychologists interpret this effect in terms of normal mechanism of forgetting and remembering
the process of repeating a stimulus over and over, usually for the purpose of remembering it, by keeping it active in short term memory
release from proactive interference
a situation in which conditions occur that eliminate or reduce the decrease in performance caused by proactive interference
reminiscence bump
the empirical finding that people over 40 years old have enhanced memory for events for adolescence and early adulthood, compared to other periods of their lives.
repeated reproduction
a method of measuring memory in which a person recalls a stimulus on repeated occaisons so his or her memory is tested at longer and longer intervals after the original presentation of the material to be remembered.
repetition priming
when an initial presentation of a stimulus affects the persons response to the same stimulus when it is presented later.
the processing of remembering information that is stored in memory.
retrieval cues
cues that help a person remember information that is stored in memory
retrograde amnesia
loss of memory for something that happened prior to an injury or traumatic event such as a concussion
a persons knowledge about what is involved in a particular experience. For example, a persons knowledge about what usually happens when they go to the dentists office is their "dentists office" schema.
a type of schema. The conception of the sequence of actions that describe a particular activity. For example, the sequence of events are associated with going to class would be a "going to class" script.
selective attention
the ability to focus on one message and ignore all others.
self reference effect
memory for a word is improved by relating the word to the self
semantic coding
coding in the mind in the form of meaning. An example of semantic coding would be remembering the meaning of something you have read, as opposed to what the letters or words looked like (visual coding) or sounded like (phonological coding)
semantic memory
memory for knowledge about the world that is not tied to any specific personal experiece. Semantic and episodic memory, together make up declarative memory
sensory memory
a brief stage of memory that holds information for seconds or fractions of a second. It is the first stage in the modal model of memory.
serial position curve
in a memory experiment in which a number of particpants are presented with a list of words, the serial position curve is a plot of percentage of participants remembering each words, versus the position of that word in each list.
the procedure of repeating a message out loud as it is heard. Shadowing is commonly used in conjunction with studies of selective attention that use the dichotic learning
shallow processing
processing that involves repetition with little attention to meaning. Shallow processing is usually associated with maintenance rehearsal.
short term memory
a memory mechanism that can hold a limited amount of information for a breif period of time, usually around 30 seconds, unless there is rehearsal (such as repeating telephone number) that can maintain information in long term memory. Short term memory is one of the stages in the modal model.
source misattribution
errors or source monitoring in which people attribute something they remember to the wrong source
source monitoring
the process by which people determine the origins of memories, knowledge, or beliefs. Remembering that you heard about seomtime from a particular person would be an example of source monitoring
spotlight model of attention
the model of visual attention that conceives of attention as having an effect similar to a spotlight that, when directed at different locations, increases the efficiency for which signals at that location can be processed.
state dependent learning
the principle that memory is best if a person is in the same state for encoding and retrieval. This principle is related to encoding specificity.
structural features
in the modal model of memory, structural features are the various stages of the model such as sensory memory, short term memory, and long term memory
task load
how much of a persons cognitive resources are used to accomplish a task. The idea of task load is important for some explanations of selective attention and also for explanations of how people process information in working memory
transfer appropriate processing
when the type of encoding that occurs during acquisition matches the type of encoding that occurs during acquisition. The type of processing can result is enhanced memory
unilateral neglect
a condition that is usually associated with damage to the right parietal lobe, in which the person ignores stimuli presented in the left half of the visual field. Neglect is usually described as a lack of attention to the left side of space.
visual coding
coding in the mind in the form of a visual image. An example of visual coding, would be remembering something by conjuring up an image of it in your mind.
visual icon
breif sensory memory for visual stimuli, which lasts for a fraction of a second after a stimulus is extinguished. The visual icon is associated with the sensory memory stage of the modal model of memory
visuospatial sketch pad
the part of working memory that holds processes visual and spatial information
weapons focus
a situation that occurs in which eyewitnesses to a crime tend to focus attention on a weapon, which causes poorer memory for other things that are happening
whole report procedure
the procedure used in sperlings experiment in which he was studying the properties of the visual icon. His particpants were instructed to report all of the stimuli they saw in brief presentation
word length effect
the finding that it is more difficult to remember a list of long words than a list of shorts words
working memory
a limited capacity system for temporary storage and manipulation of information for complex tasks such as comprehension, learning, and reasoning
zoom lens model
a model of selective attention that conceives of attention as being like a zoom lens, in which attention can be spread over large areas or zoomed in to be focused on smaller areas.