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12 Cards in this Set

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Petechiae
a round discreet hemorrhagic area <2 millimeters in diameter.
Ecchymosis
a hemorrhagic area larger than petechia.
Purpura
when the hemorrhage of either petechiae or ecchymosis occurs in groups, it is referred to as purpura. Purpuric areas may become confluent, but usually do not cause elevation of the skin or mucosa.
Hematoma
an area of elevation of the skin or mucosa related to underlying hemorrhage. The extravasated blood usually causes discoloration and follows tissue planes where it dissects along the “path of least resistance.”
Hemarthrosis
is extravasation of blood (bleeding) into a joint, usually as the result of mechanical trauma, from injury to the joint capsule, ligaments, cartilage, or bone.
Epistaxis
bleeding from the nose. When mild, it is usually associated with rupture of small vessels overlying the anterior portion of the cartilaginous nasal septum; when severe, it involves larger vessels supplying the nasal lining.
Hemoptesis
is the spitting or coughing of blood. The etiology may be from bleeding anywhere along the respiratory tract.
Hematemesis
blood in the vomitus. (NOTE: Colloquial expressions in parts of the country use the phrase “spitting up” in lieu of vomiting). Blood in emesis is indicative of blood in the GI tract. It may occur as a primary GI bleed, or be swallowed when the patient has epistaxis, oral trauma, etc. Bright blood may be arterial whereas venous blood is darker. “Coffee ground” emesis is noted when the blood has been exposed to gastric acid and pepsin.
Melena
blood in the stool which produces a characteristic black tarry stool that is sticky and adherent – sometimes difficult to clean anus after passage. It also has a characteristic acrid-sweet odor similar to creosote. It results from upper GI bleeding without rapid gut transit.
Hematuria
is blood in the urine. Visible blood in the urine is referred to as gross hematuria. Blood in the urine which is not visible to the eye is referred to as microhematuria (>3 RBC/hpf in a spun urine specimen). Both should be positive on the macroscopic (dipstick) and microscopic examination.
Hemoglobinuria
is the presence of extracellular hemoglobin in the urine. Both hemoglobinuria and myoglobinuria will have a positive reaction on the urine dipstick, but will not have RBCs present on microscopic examination.
Menorrhagia
a state where the menses lasts longer than normal, or the daily flow is heavier than normal.