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129 Cards in this Set

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Abdication
Resignation of monarch from their political role
Agrarian
Nation whose economy is based primarily on producing foodstuffs in the countryside
Allies
The group of countries who united to fight the Germans' Axis in WWI
Armand
Inessa Armand became Lenin's mistress after meeting Lenin in Paris in 1910; she was a passionate revolutionary
Assassination
Murder of a public figure for political reasons
Autocratic
A political system where the ruler has complete political power; unlimited by formal constitution or a parliament
Bolshevik
means 'majority'; taken by Lenin and followers after the split in the SD Party in 1903
Bourgeoisie
Marxist term for exploiting capitalist middle class
Buchanan
British Ambassador in Russia from 1910 to 1918
Bund
Revolutionary Jewish Organisation
Bureacracy
System of officials that ensure a country operates effectively
Capitalism
Economic system whereby investment and ownership of the means of production distribution and exchange of wealth is privately owned
CCCP
Central Committee of the Communist Party
Cheka
All Russian Extraordinary Committee for fighting Counter-Revolution i.e. Bolshevik Secret Police!
Chernov
Revolutionary who was involved with the Socialist Revolutionaries and later the Mensheviks
Comintern
The Communist International Organisation; established in 1919 for the purpose of bringing revolution in other countries
Commissar
Minister or Official in the Soviet Govt or CPSU (while the new Bolshevik govt was officially called the 'Government of People's Commissars', the individual ministerial roles were renamed Commissar)
Communism
Ideology with the goal of a classless society whereby the system of economic and social organisation is premised on the idea that industry, capital, land and other means of production are owned and controlled by the community as a whole.
Communist Manifesto
Published by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in 1848 - promoted the decline of capitalism and the inevitable rise of communism
Constituent Assembly
The name given to an elected political group
Constitution
The set of rules by which a country is governed
Cossacks
A fiercely independent people from the region on the Don River near the Black Sea
Coup d'etat
A forced replacement of the govt
CPSU
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Formerly the Bolshevik Party)
Democracy
A liberal concept where citizens of a country have a say in how the country is to be governed and by whom
Diktat
A settlement imposed by threat of force
Dual Government
The term given to the eight-month period between February and October 1917
Duma
The Imperial Russian Parliament between 1906 - 1917 (Russian word for elected parliament)
Durnovo
A member of the upper class who became Minister of the Interior under PM Witte
Dzerzhinsky
The Chairman of the powerful secret police organisation, the Cheka
Economic
Theme that involves any issues to do with money (taxation, inflation, unemployment, wages, prices)
Edict of Emancipation
Issued in 1861 to provide greater freedom for the Russian serfs (peasants)
Emigres
Those who fled Russian to avoid Govt Oppression
Exile
Many revolutionaries were imprisoned by the Tsar in the isolated region of central Russia called Siberia or banished from Russia altogether
Famine
A desperate situation where food is scarce, resulting in severe malnutrition and death
Feudal
The medieval social system where the privileged nobles controlled the hardworking peasants
French Revolution
1789 revolution that replaced the absolute monarch with a republic that inspired many revolutionaries including Lenin
Gapon
Father Gapon was an active revolutionary who led the peaceful march to petition the Tsar for political representation and better working conditions
Ghetto
The Jewish quarters in a town or city
Glasnost
Russian for 'openness', adopted as a description of the new Soviet approach of the late 1980s and 1990s
GOELRO
A Special State Commission, established in 1920 to organise the electrification of Russia
Gorky
Maxim Gorky was a famous revolutionary whose writings inspired and mentored aspiring revolutionaries
Gosplan
Superceded 'Vesenkha' in 1921 as the body responsible for integrated nations' economic planning
Government
The official Political body that runs the country
Harvest
Collection of mature grain for eating, storage or market
Historians
Fabulous men and women who attempt to make sense of the past and who usually specialise in one country or period of history
Ideas
Abstract concepts or beliefs that provide hope and a solution to problems
Ideology
Set of ideas or beliefs that characterise a particular revolutionary movement
Industrialisation
Process of making a country more modern by developing machines and factories
Intelligentsia
The educated and more enlightened members of Russian society, who were usually supporters of reform (thinkers, writers, artists)
Iskra
Russian for 'the spark', an SD newspaper founded by Lenin and Martov in 1898 (taken from a phrase used by the Decembrists of 1825 - 'a spark will start a big blaze')
Izvestiya
Russian for 'the news', taken as the title of a Bolshevik newspaper
Kadets (KDs)
The Constitutional Democrats; a liberal party founded in 1905 - conservative revolutionary group which played an important role in the First Duma of 1906 and in the Provisional Govt of 1917.
Kaplan
A radical anarchist who shot Lenin twice in a failed assassination attempt in August 1918
Kerensky
Key member of the PG who later became the PM
Khabalov
General Khabalov was the Chief of the Petrograd Military District during the Feb Revolution
Kolchak
Admiral who led a White Army against the Feb Revolution
Koliontai
A prominent Bolshevik revolutionary who became the first woman selected to join Lenin's powerful Central Committee
Kolkhozy
The Collective farms
Kronstadt
A major naval base situated on an island near St Petersburg
Krupskaya
Lenin's wife; they met in Siberia after she had also been exiled there for her own revolutionary activity
Kulaks
The class of rich peasants - derogatory name given by Lenin's govt to peasants who were deemed to be selfishly hoarding grain for their benefit rather than that of the nation.
Leaders
Men and women who influence ordinary people
Lenin
The most recognised Marxist revolutionary who led the Bolshevik Party and eventually overthrew the PG in October 1917
Liberal Movement
Argued that the dire need for change did not require an overthrow of the tsarist system
Martov
A serious disagreement with Lenin led to the establishment of the Mensheviks in 1903; Martov was elected their first leader
Marxism/Leninism
The official Bolshevik/Communist ideology based on the ideas of Karl Marx
Masses
General name given to the anonymous crowds of ordinary workers and peasants
Mensheviks
Word meaning 'minority' used to describe the followers of Plekhanov after the split in the SD Party in 1903 from the Bolsheviks
Mir
The Village Commune where Village governments that were formed under tsarism to provide cooperation and coordination in rural areas
MRC
The Military Revolutionary Committee of the Petrograd Soviet - influential body established by the Bolsheviks in 1917 and coordinated by Trotsky to effect the October Revolution
Miliukov
Member of the conservative Kadet Party who opposed Rasputin and became leader of the PG in 1917
Moscow
Along with Petrograd (St Petersburg), a major city in Russia
Movements
Popular outbreaks of mass actions by ordinary people
Narkompod
The People's Commission of Supply
Narodniks
Russian for 'the people'; the Populist movement that looked to the peasants to take the lead in the transformation of Russia
NEP
The New Economic Policy introduced by Lenin in 1921
Neva River
Majestic river that flowed through St Petersburg directly behind the Tsar's Winter Palace
Octobrists
The Moderate Reformist Party, established in 1903
Okhrana
The Tsarist Secret Police
Old Regime
The revolutionary name given to the period ruled by the tsars, indicating that the revolutionaries had introduced a new and better society
Orgburo
The CCCP's Bureau of Organisation
Orthodox Church
Traditional Russian Orthodox Church that had supported and benefited from the rule of the tsars
Peasants
The lowest class in the social system who were dependent on making a living from either owning or renting land
Petition
Written document signed by a large number of people recommending a specific plan of action be undertaken by govt
Petrograd Soviet
Powerful political body first formed by Trotsky during the 1905 Revolution but then re-formed on 28 February 1917
Plekhanov
considered to be the father of Russian Marxism
Pogroms
State Organised Persecution of the Jews
Politburo
The Political Bureau; the inner cabinet of the CCCP
Pravda
Russian for 'truth'; taken as the title of the Bolshevik Newspaper established in 1912
Privileges
Economic and social benefits given to the upper social classes due to birth rather than talent or merit
Proletariat
The Marxist term for the Revolutionary Working Class of industrial workers
Propaganda
Creation of powerful visual or verbal material that presents a point of view from one dominant perspective
Provisional Govt
A temporary committee formed during the February Revolution but becoming the new govt after Tsar Nicholas II abdicated
Putilov Steel Works
One of the largest factories in St Petersburg, employing over 8000 men
Rasputin
A Siberian peasant who had great influence over Tsarina Alexandra and Tsar Nicholas II
Red Army
The army of the Soviet Union
Red Guard
Group of workers that was hastily formed into a fighting group to defend Petrograd against the advancing Kornilov
Reed
American journalist who was in Petrograd during the revolution
Reforms
The healthy process of making political, economic or social changes to make a country operate more effectively
Requisitioning
Confiscation of goods, often foodstuffs such as grain, often with a high degree of force
Revolution
Process of massive political upheaval that changes the way a country is governed; a vertical shift in power from an absolute monarch to a popular govt ruling on behalf of the people
Rodzianko
Head of the Fourth Duma (1912-1917) who formed the PG after Tsar Nicholas II abdicated
Rouble
Russian currency
RSFSR
The Russian Socialist Federal Soviet Republic; the title of the Soviet state between 1918 - 1922
Russo Japanese War
Began in 1904 and ended disastrously for the Russian navy in 1905 with the comprehensive defeat in the Tsushima Strait
Siberia
The remote but vast central area in Russia whose isolation and harsh conditions limited population numbers and made it ideal for exiling revolutionaries and other dangerous prisoners
Smolny Institute
The building became the HQ for the new Bolshevik govt as well as the Petrograd Soviet in 1917
Socialism
Ideology where workers' representatives seize power and rule on behalf of the proletariat; comes after the stage of capitalism that is necessary before moving to classless utopia
Socialist Revolutionary Party
The most popular Marxist party in Russia because it represented the interests of the peasants (Trudoviks were the )labour group on the moderate wing of the SRs)
SDs
The Social-Democrats Workers' Party; divided into Bolshevik and Menshevik wings in 1903 - founded by Plekhanov in 1898 on Marxist principles
Soviets
Local revolutionary groups formed to listen to ordinary people's debates - Councils of workers, soldiers and sailors first formed in 1905
Soviet Order No. 1
The Order given by the Petrograd Soviet one day after its formation that no military orders from the PG were to be obeyed unless also approved by the Soviet
Sovkhozy
State Farms
Sovnarkom
The Council of People's Commissars (the government of the USSR) - powerful 15 member cabinet of ministers in the new Bolshevik govt of 1917
Stolypin
PM in 1906 to control the new Dumas and restore public faith in the Tsar
Trans Siberian Railway
Completed by Witte and opened in 1905, this railway travelled across the length of Russia from Moscow to Vladivovostok and therefore had major benefits for trade, the transport of goods and troop movements
Trotsky
A radical Marxist revolutionary who joined with Lenin and the Bolsheviks in 1917 to form the new govt after the October Revolution 1917
Tsar
Russian emperor (also spelt czar)
Tsarina
Russian empress; wife of the Tsar
Tsarevitch
Heir to the Russian throne; the Tsar's eldest son
USSR
The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, which replaced the RSFSR as the official title of the Soviet State after 1922
Vesenkha
The Supreme Council of the National Economy
Vyperod
Russian for 'forward', adopted by Lenin as the title of a Bolshevik journal
War Communism
Series of economic policies instituted between 1918 and 1920 to attempt to win the Civil War
Winter Palace
The Tsar's main palace in the heart of St Petersburg
Witte
Influential Finance Minister and later PM who rapidly increased Russian industry and completed the Trans Siberian Railway
Zemgor
The Union of municipal councils and 'zemstva' that combined in 1914 to further the Russian war effort
Zemstvos
Local Govt Councils established in the countryside in 1864 - made up of elected representatives of peasants and landowners