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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Hemiballismus
lesion of the subthalamic nuclei
loss of inhibition to the contralateral side -
Neurofibrillary Tangles
Flame cells and pairehd helical filaments
Abnormal phosphorylation of Tau protein (microtubule associated protein) excessive phosphorylation makes it insoluble.
Found in Supranuclear opthalmoplegia
Alzheimers
Creutzfeuld Jakob
Flexner Wintersteiner Rosettes
Retinoblastoma
Cr 13
timolol
open angle glaucoma works in 1 or 2 hours
Beta blocker reduces aqueous humor production
PICA syndrome
Lateral Medullary Syndrome
Deficit in pain and temp sensation in contralateral body.
Ipsilateral dysphagia, hoarseness, diminished gag reflex
vertigo, diplopia, nystagmus, vomtiting
Ipsilateral horner syndrome (disruption of descending sym fibers)
ipsilateral loss of P+T on face (spinal tract and nuc of 5)
AICA occlusion
Lateral inferior pontine syndrome
Ipsilateral facial paralysis from lesion of facial nuc, ipsilat cochlear nuc leading to sensorineural deafness, vestibular involvement leading to nystagmus and spinal trigeminal involvement leading to ipsilateral P+T loss of face. Ipsilateral dystaxia from loss of middle and inferior cerebella peduncles.
Anterior SPinal Occlusion
Branch of vertebral
Medial Medullary syndrome
Contralat hemiparesis of lower extremity and trunk bc of corticospinal tract, medial leminiscus leads to diminished proprioception on contralat side, ipsilat paralysis of tongue.
Posterior Cerebral Art Occlusion
arises from term bifurcation of basilar art
Leads to homonymous hemaniopsia of the contralateral visual field with macular sparing
Corneal Reflex
Sensory afferent from V1
Motor efferent from 7 to shut the eye
Pain and Temp sensation on tip of tongue
V3-
V2 senses the upper palat.
1st line for status epilepticus
diazepam
treament for bulimia
fluoxetine
Most common cause of MR
FAS
cardiac septal defects as well
Emboli to the brain
MCA - contralat paralysis, motor an sensory deficit, aphasia
Smaller vessels - lacunar infarts
Charcot Bouchard aneurysm rupture
longstanding HTN,
basal ganglia, pons, frontal lobe, cerebellum,
other causes - coagulation d/o hemorrhage within tumor.
Contralat hemiparesis of trunk and extremity
contral loss of proprioception
ipsilateral flaccid paralysis of tongue
Ant spinal artery
Medial Medullary Syndrome
Nystagmus, nausea, vomiting, vertigo
ipsilateral cerebella signs
loss of gag reflex, laryngeal,pharyngeal and palate paralysis, dysarthria, dysphagia, hoarseness.
Contral loss of P+T from trunk and extremity
Ipsilat loss of P+T from face
Ipsilat Horners
PICA
Lateral Medullary syndrome
Ipsilat Lateral Rectus paralysis
Contralat weakness of lower face
contral hemiparesis of trunk and extremity
Ipsilateral limb and gait ataxia
Contral loss of proprioception
Occlusion of paramedian branches of the basilar art
ipsilat facial nerve paralysis
unilat central nerve deafness
nystagmus, nausea vomiting and vertigo
ipsilat loss of P+T from face
Ipsilat limb and gait dystaxia
contralat loss of P+T from trunk and extremitites
Ipsilat Horners
AICA syndrome
Lateral inferior pontine syndrome
Locked in syndrome
infarction of the base of the pons.
Loss of corticobulbar, and CST
quadriplegia and paralysis of lower cranial nerves.
can be a result of Central Pontine Myelinolysis
Lateral inferior pontine syndrome
Ipsilateral facial paralysis from lesion of facial nuc, ipsilat cochlear nuc leading to sensorineural deafness, vestibular involvement leading to nystagmus and spinal trigeminal involvement leading to ipsilateral P+T loss of face. Ipsilateral dystaxia from loss of middle and inferior cerebella peduncles.
AICA
Lateral pontine syndrome
Deficit in pain and temp sensation in contralateral body.
Ipsilateral dysphagia, hoarseness, diminished gag reflex
vertigo, diplopia, nystagmus, vomtiting
Ipsilateral horner syndrome (disruption of descending sym fibers)
ipsilateral loss of P+T on face (spinal tract and nuc of 5)
PICA
Lateral Medullary syndrome
Parinaud Syndrome
Compression of the superior colliculi and pretectal area of the dorsal midbrain - area that constains the vertical gaze centere. Pineal tumors can compress here and at the cerebral aqueduct leading to a noncomunicating hydrocephalus.

Paralyzed upwd gaze
What comes out at the cerebellopontine angle
VII and VIII
Mitochondrial Enzyme abnormality
progressive intellectual deterioration, weakness, ataxia, sz
Leigh Dz
Ascending muscles weakness and paralysis
Guillain Barre -
albuminocytic dissociation
(high albumin low cell count)
AR
decr beta galactocerebrosidase
loss of myelin from globoid cells and peripheral nerves
Yellow brown nerve stain
Metachromic Leukodystrophy
AR defect of arylsulfatse
progrssive paralysis and dementia
loss of myelin
Nerves stain yellow brown
ataxia.
Cerebellar Abcess
60% caused by otitis media
Nodular proliferation of multinuc atypical astrocytes
angiomyolipoma of the kidney
SZ and MR beginning in infancy is characteristic
Tuberous Sclerosis
Adenoma sebaceum
Autosomal Dominant
Lacunar Strokes
Infarction caused by obstruction of small vessels -bcm small pits upon healing
Intracerebral hemorrhage vs Subarachnoid hemorrhage
Intracerebral - most often caused by HTN leading to charcot bouchard aneurysms becoming sites of rupture.
SAH - ass with berry aneurysm rupture in circle of willis.
Also caused by AV malform, trauma
Subfalcine cingulate herniation
Can occlude the anterior cerebral artery
Tonsillar Herniation
Herniates into the foramen magnum
Can compress medulla leading to resp failure and death
Uncal Herniation
Can cause opthalmoplegia.
Characteristically affects peripheral parts of the nerve first which carry parasympathetic information.
Where do CN 9 and 10 emerge from the brainstem
They emerge from the post olivary sulcus
cranial 5 exit
comes out at ventrolateral surface of the pons
Sciatic Nerve
Exits via greater sciatic foramen below piriformis
Consists of tibial and common peroneal nerve
Where is the CTZ found?
Area Postrema - floor of the 4th ventricle.
HiP adduction
obturator nerve
Hip abduction
superior gluteal nerve
Friedrich Ataxia
triplet repeat dz
Children
Vit B12 def and Friedrich Ataxia -demyelination of dorsal columns, LCST, Spinocerebellar tract, ataxic gait, hyperreflexia, impaired proprioception.
Friedrichs -ataxia in lower extremity that spreads to upper extremity followed by paralysis and contracture.
Werdnig Hoffman
LMN lesion only. In anterior horn.
Die by age 2
# Fasciculations of the tongue
# Marked Hypotonia
# Difficulty breathing
# Poor feeding
# Weak cry
# Areflexive extremitie
Holoprosencephaly
arhinencephaly
absence of olfactory bulbs and tracts
Trisomy 13 - pataus
Extreme FAS (esp in first 4 wks of pregnancy.