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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Neuronal structures...
neurites
axon
dendrites
neurites
number of cell body extensions
axon
usually one
but often branches near end (collaterals)
dendrites
generally arborzed and short
recieve synaptic input
glial cells
most common type
protection, nutrition & remove transmitter
includes astrocters (BBB), oligodendrocytes (insulation), microglia (phagocytic), ependymal cells (CSF)
astrocytes
blood brain barrier
olifodendrocytes
insulation
microglia
phagocytic
ependymal of choriod plexi in ventricles... fxn...
secrete CSF which circulates within and around brain
How much CSF is in the brain?
150 ml and about 200 ml secreted every day
secretion and absorption must be balanced otherwise pressure builds up
fluid circulates in from ventircles through _____ and out via ___________
aqueducts
windows (fromina of Luschka and Magendie)
Where is CSF absorded?
arachniod villi
Hydrocephalus
occurs when circulation blocked
caused by congential, tumors, or inflammations
What is the difference between adulat and babies in regards to hydopcephalus?
babies skulls can expand
Meninges- 3 layers
dura mater
arachniod
pia
dura mater
tough, strong, mother
arachnoid
web like
space between dura and A subdural
CSF reclaimed by arachnoid villi or granulations
pia
delicate, tightly invests surface of brain
Subarachniod
space between A and P
Divide in the the brain
two hemispheres
an infolding of the dura forms the falx cerebri
superior sagittal sinus
formed where they join adn it is here that CSG returns to the venous circulation
Brain recieves about ____ % of CO
20
this is autoregulated
circle of willis
base of the brain
brain aneurysms often occur here
collateral circulation
gyrus
series of elevated convolutions
sulci/ fissures
shallow grooves which seperate or deeper ones (fissures)
What does the central fissure seperate?
frontal and parietal lobe
What does the lateral fissure separate?
temporal and frontal lobe
Name of the superficial lobes:
frontal
parietal
temporal
occipital
Limbic lobe
deeper cerebral structure that surrounds the brain stem and includes the cingulate gyrus, hippocampus, and is sometimes referred to as a system
early development of the brain
neural tube and neural crest... the CNS is ectodermal in origin develops from the neural tube. At its rostral (front) end a number of large vesicles or outcropping develop. Some neuroectodermal cells pinch off to from neural crest.
neural crest cells
develop into schwann cells and
adrenal medulla cells
visceral ganglion cells
dorsal root ganglion cells
Spina Bifida
failure ot close caudally
anencephaly
fluid filled center of the neural tube persist as the ventricular system. filaure of the neural tube to close rostrally results in anencephaly
What is critical for neural tube formation and closure?
folic acid or folate
Edficiency of folate acid accouts for about ____ % of neural tube defects
90
Folate should be taken prior to ______
pregnancy
When should neural tube formation and closure occurs...
3-4 weeks after conception
embryonic brain development
five vesicles from the rostral neural tube. The teleocephalon gives rise to the cerebral hemisphere, corpus callosum; diencephalon to the thalamus, hypothalamus
When should neural tube formation and closure occurs...
3-4 weeks after conception