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20 Cards in this Set

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Which of the following is the plural form of fossa?
A fossas
B fossulae
C foci
D fossae
D fossae
Which of the following is correct?
A invitro
B in-vitro
C in vitro
D none of these
C in vitro
In vitro, literally meaning within the glass, refers to biological processes that are carried out in the laboratory. Vitro refers to the glass used to make the test tubes or glass plates used in laboratory environments. Latin phrases should not be hyphenated, even when used as a compound modifier (e.g., in vitro fertilization).
An antifungal medication would be used to treat:
A chickenpox
B streptococcus.
C candida.
D staphylococcus.
C candida.
Staphylococcus and streptococcus are bacteria and do not respond to medications directed at fungi. Chickenpox is a virus and also would not respond to antifungal medications. Bacteria, fungi and humans differ in the composition of their cellular walls (membranes) and many antiinfective agents take advantage of this fact. These differences give the medication a specific target, or methodology, for destroying the cell by dismantling the cell's outer structure. The cell walls of fungi are more closely related to the cellular membranes of human cells, so it is more difficult to target fungi without also affecting the human host. A virus, on the other hand, incorporates into the host's cells, so a virus does not have its own cell membrane, making it very difficult to actually treat the virus without harming the host.
A cervical collar is used to:
A prevent pregnancy.
B support a prolapsed uterus.
C collect a sample for a Pap smear.
D stabilize the neck after injury to the spine.
D stabilize the neck after injury to the spine.
A cervical collar holds the cervical spine in the correct anatomical position to stabilize the spine after a trauma or cervical spine surgery.
Passage of bright red or dark red blood in the stool is called:
A hematochezia.
B hematemesis.
C hematopoiesis.
D melena.
A hematochezia.
Hematochezia, which is the passage of red or brick-colored stools, or stools streaked with bright red blood, is distinguished from melena, which is the passage of black, tarry stools. Blood originating in the upper GI tract (esophagus, stomach, duodenum) is affected by digestive processes as it passes through the intestines and turns the stool black. Blood originating lower in the tract is less affected by digestion and appears more so in its native color. Diverticulitis is a common cause of hematochezia. Hemorrhoids often cause bright red blood on the stool or on the toilet paper, as hemorrhoids typically bleed during defecation. Hematemesis refers to vomitus that contains blood. Hematopoiesis is the production of blood cells in the bone marrow.
Which of the following words means "stones in the urine"?
A uterolith
B urosepsis
C cholelithiasis
D urolithiasis
D urolithiasis
The combining form uro refers to urine and the root word litho is from the Greek word lithos meaning stone. While the term literally means stone in the urine, it is generally used to signify a stone in the urinary tract. Cholelithiasis refers to a stone (calculus) in the biliary system (gallbladder or bile ducts). A uterolith is a calculus in the uterus.
The abbreviation COPD refers to:
A a disease which affects pediatric patients.
B an emerging technology used to treat cancer.
C a disease which affects the colon.
D a disease which affects the lungs.
D a disease which affects the lungs.
COPD is the abbreviation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease which refers to several diseases that cause difficulty breathing due to obstruction or narrowing of the bronchioles or stiffening of the alveolar sacs. The most common diseases are chronic bronchitis and emphysema. The most common cause of COPD is cigarette smoking.
Atopic refers to:
A a pregnancy that attaches to the fallopian tube instead of the uterus.
B an inherited allergy.
C an extra cardiac beat.
D a preparation that is used on the skin.
B an inherited allergy.
Atopic refers to an inherited allergy, most commonly manifested as eczema or hay fever. Most allergies are acquired by first being exposed to the agent with a subsequent (inappropriate) reaction the second or subsequent time the person comes into contact with the same agent, but atopic allergic reactions can appear the first time a person is exposed to the agent because the antibody to that agent has been inherited. The word most commonly confused with atopy (and atopic) is ectopy (and ectopic). Ectopy refers something out of place, as in a pregnancy developing in the fallopian tube instead of the uterus, or a cardiac beat that originates from a focus other than the sinoatrial node.
Which of the following refers to the fibula?
A peritoneal
B perineal
C peroneal
D perennial
C peroneal
Peroneal, from the word perone, refers to the small bone of the leg-the fibula. The homonym perineal refers to the area between the anus and the vagina (female) and the anus and the scrotum (male). Peritoneal refers to the serous membrane which lines the abdominal cavity. Perennial refers to something that persists throughout the year.
Nuchal rigidity is indicative of:
A fetal distress.
B a broken finger.
C gout.
D meningitis.
D meningitis.
The term nucha refers to the back of the neck. Nuchal rigidity is the inability to flex the neck, which is indicative of meningitis. A fetus may become entangled in the umbilical cord, and when the cord surrounds the neck, it is referred to as a nuchal cord.
Which of the following is transcribed correctly?
A The peritoneal cavity was contaminated with thecal material.
B The cyst is pressing on the thecal sac causing radiculopathy in the right leg.
C The urine sample obtained for culture was contaminated with thecal material.
D MRI showed impingement on the fecal sac at L4-L5.
B The cyst is pressing on the thecal sac causing radiculopathy in the right leg.
Thecal and fecal are quite difficult to distinguish when dictated, but the context should make it quite easy to differentiate. Fecal refers to feces (stool). Thecal refers to a sheath. The thecal sac is the sheath of dura mater that surrounds the nerves and spinal cord.
Which of the following is a common cause of peptic ulcers?
A H pylori
B Protonix
C stress
D cimetidine
A H pylori
Stress was once considered a significant source of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) but since the discovery of Helicobacter pylori and the realization that this bacteria is capable of surviving in the highly acidic environment of the stomach, H pylori has emerged as the most common cause of PUD. The treatment includes an antacid (proton-pump inhibitor), one or two antibiotics and possibly Pepto-Bismol to coat the ulcer while it heals.
Which of the following would be a symptom of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura?
A easy bruising
B a red rash on the torso
C deep vein thrombosis
D irregular heartbeat
A easy bruising
Idiopathic (or immune) thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an autoimmune disorder that causes very low platelet counts. In this disease, the body mistakenly identifies platelets as foreign and destroys the platelets. Without platelets to assist in clotting and repairing small vessels, the skin becomes "purpuric" or "purplish" due to extravasated blood under the skin.
The class of drugs referred to as COX-2 inhibitors is used to treat:
A diabetes.
B inflammation.
C headache.
D infection.
B inflammation.
COX-2 is short for cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor. Medications in this class, including celecoxib (Celebrex) and rofecoxib (Vioxx) prevent the production of prostaglandins which promote inflammation (leading to pain). This class of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) does not inhibit the prostaglandin that protects the stomach lining. This selectivity reduces the chance of stomach ulcers caused by NSAIDS such as naproxen and ibuprofen, which inhibit both inflammatory and protective prostaglandins. Celebrex is most often prescribed for arthritis or muscle injury. Vioxx was removed from the market in 2004 due to concerns of increased risk of heart attack.
Polypharmacy means:
A taking several forms of the same medication.
B purchasing medications from multiple pharmacies to commit medication fraud.
C taking many different medications.
D treating a single disease with two different medications.
C taking many different medications.
Polypharmacy refers to the administration of many drugs at the same time but can also describe problems caused by the interaction of many drugs taken concurrently or the duplication of medications. Polypharmacy is a significant concern for the elderly and also for patients with comorbidities being treated by several physicians.
Which of the following words means (bone) + (softness)?
A osteoporosis
B chondroplast
C chondromalacia
D osteomalacia
D osteomalacia
The combining form osteo means bone. The combining form malacia means soft. Osteomalacia is a disease characterized by gradual softening or bending of bones. Osteoporosis is characterized by decreased bone mass. The combining form chondro refers to cartilage. Chondroplast is a dividing cell of growing cartilage and chondromalacia refers to a softening of cartilage tissue.
Which of the following is transcribed correctly?
A The x-ray showed the hardware was instilled properly in the hip joint.
B A small amount of normal saline was installed in the nasal cavity.
C Cerumenex drops were installed in the external auditory canal.
D The catheter was placed in the bladder and an antibiotic solution was instilled.
D The catheter was placed in the bladder and an antibiotic solution was instilled.
Instilled and installed are often confused. Instill means to place fluid drop-wise or to impart gradually. Install refers to the placement of a solid object, not fluid.
Which of the following is formatted correctly?
A 3-4-cm lesion
B 2-year 5-month-old-child
C finger-to-nose-test
D 10- to 12-year history
D 10- to 12-year history
Use a suspensive hyphen when typing a compound modifier with a numerical range. B and C are incorrect because the hyphen should precede the noun that is being modified by the compound modifier.
The differential, often ordered with a CBC or hemogram, includes information about:
A red cell size.
B platelet size.
C number of each type of white cell.
D last CBC.
C number of each type of white cell.
The differential is performed to "differentiate" the types of white cells that make up the total white cell count, including lymphocytes, monocytes, "polys," bands, eosinophils, basophils, and rarely myelocytes and blasts. The differential reports the percentage of each cell type, so the total number of each cell type added together should always equal 100. Traditionally, the differential is performed by examining a stained blood smear under the microscope. A total of 100 cells are examined, keeping track of each cell type seen. Now, routine differential counts are performed using automated cell counters capable of examining millions of cells, so differential counts may be calculated and reported as decimals (e.g., 33.4 lymphocytes, 62.1 PMNs, and 5.3 monocytes). You may encounter an automated differential count that does not add up to exactly 100, but possibly 100 +/- 1. Automated counters are not always accurate, especially in patients hematologic or immunologic disorders, so manual differential counts are still performed when indicated.
The abbreviation I&O refers to:
A intent and outcome.
B a type of incision used to drain abscesses.
C the measurement of fluid intake and output.
D inpatients and outpatients.
C the measurement of fluid intake and output.
Intake refers to the amount of fluid a patient takes in, either by mouth or IV, and output refers to the amount excreted through the kidneys. Patients with fluid control issues such as congestive heart failure or kidney failure must be monitored carefully for volume overload-too much input compared to output. This may also be dictated as "I's and O's."