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7 Cards in this Set

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A patient with the rare genetic disorder, hyperoxaluria, may develop calcium oxalate kidney stones that originate from a defect in the liver. Patients with this disorder lack the enzyme alanine glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) in the liver, which results in the overproduction of oxalate. Excess oxalate is excreted through the kidneys, however, some of the oxalate may combine with calcium in the urine to form crystal stones. Treatment consists of high doses (3.0 - 3.5 mg/kg) of this vitamin and high fluid intake (water), which reduces the formation of calcium oxalate stones. The vitamin works as a coenzyme to convert glyoxalate into glycine rather than oxalate. It is available in various strengths (i.e., 25 mg, 50 mg, and 100 mg) in a variety of forms (i.e., capsules and tablets).
Pyridoxine (vitamin B6)
A naturally occurring bile acid, this medication is used to dissolve gallstones, which are formed most often by excess cholesterol. The drug works by suppressing synthesis of cholesterol. It is available as 300-mg capsules. The recommended dosage for gallstone dissolution is 8-10 mg/kg/day in 2-3 divided doses. The dosage to prevent gallstones undergoing rapid weight loss is 300 mg twice daily. Common side effects may include dyspepsia, constipation, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting.
Actigall (ursodeoxycholic acid)
This antiviral medication is used to treat active hepatitis B infection in patients with liver damage. It is available as 0.5-mg and 1-mg film-coated tablets and as a 0.05-mg/mL oral solution. The usual dosage for adults and teenagers age 16 and older is 0.5 mg daily. Those with a history of hepatitis B viremia, while receiving lamivudine, is 1 mg daily. This medication should be taken on an empty stomach because high-fat foods may delay absorption. Common side effects of this drug may include headache, dizziness, tiredness, and nausea. A rare but serious side effect is lactic acidosis, a condition in which excess lactic acid is produced in the blood, resulting in deep and rapid breathing. Most importantly, patients must keep taking this medication every day - stopping it too soon may result in serious exacerbations of hepatitis.
Baraclude (entecavir)
This medication may be used to prevent hepatitis A in people who have been exposed to the virus (and who have not been vaccinated with the hepatitis A vaccine). It is available as a 10% intravenous solution in 10-mL, 25-mL, 50-mL, 100-mL, and 200-mL containers. The usual dosage is 300-600 mg/kg by administered by intravenous injection every 3 to 4 weeks. Common side effects may include headache, fever, fatigue, chills, inflammation at the injection site, nausea, diarrhea, dizziness, and cough.
Gammagard (Immune globulin)
This immunosuppressant agent is indicated to treat rejection of transplant organs. It is available as a 5-mg/5 mL solution for injection. The usual adult dosage is 5 mg daily in a single bolus intravenous injection for 10 to 14 days. The dosage in pediatric patients weighing less than or equal to 30 kg is 2.5 mg daily, and in patients weighing more than 30 kg, 5 mg daily, for 10 to 14 days. Common adverse effects are fever, chills, changes in blood pressure, tachycardia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, tremor, weakness, dyspnea, and rash.
Orthoclone OKT 3 (muromonab-CD3)
This chelating agent is indicated to treat Wilson's disease, a condition in which excess copper accumulates in the liver, resulting in damage to the liver tissue. It works by binding with copper to aid in its excretion from the body. The drug is available as 250-mg capsules. The usual pediatric dosage is 500 - 750 mg daily in 2 to 3 divided doses; the recommended adult dosage is 750 - 1250 mg daily in 2 to 4 divided doses. Common adverse effects are muscular spasm and dystonia.
Syprine (trientine)
Prescribed in combination with interferon alfa-2b, this medication is used to treat chronic Hepatitis C in patients ages 3 and older, with liver disease. It is available as 200-mg capsules and as a 40-mg/mL oral solution. The recommended dosage in patients weighing < 75 kg is 400 mg in the morning and 600 mg in the evening, and in patients weighing > 75 kg, 600 mg twice daily. The recommended pediatric dosage is 15 mg/kg per day in two doses. The duration of treatment is usually 24-48 weeks. Common side effects are headache, fatigue, rigors, fever, dizziness, nausea, anorexia, myalgia, muscle pain, insomnia, dyspnea, alopecia, pruritus, and rash.
Rebetol (ribavirin)