Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/7

Click to flip

7 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
This protein substance is commonly injected directly into facial muscles to reduce the appearance of "crows feet," laugh lines, and other types of facial wrinkles. It works by blocking nerve impulses to contracted muscles, thereby making the muscles flaccid. After treatment, paralysis of the muscle usually occurs within about 3 days, and lasts from 3 to 8 months. This drug is available as a 100-mg powder for reconstitution. The usual dosage is 3 to 6 units injected directly into the muscle, using a very tiny needle. Tenderness and bruising may occur after the injections.
Botox (botulinum toxin type A)
This injectable drug is used to induce preoperative sedation and amnesia. It is available as a 1-mg/mL injectable solution. The pre-op IV dosage is usually between 1 mg and 2.5 mg and it is administered over two minutes. If administered too rapidly, respiratory depression, airway obstruction, and/or respiratory arrest may result. Patients may experience side effects such as hiccoughs, nausea, vomiting, coughing, oversedation, headache, drowsiness and local effects at the IV site such as tenderness, pain during injection, and redness.
Versed (midazolam)
A sclerosing agent, this drug is indicated to treat small uncomplicated varicose veins. It works by forming a clot that occludes the vein. The vein usually disappears over several weeks. It is available as 1% and 3% injectable solutions. The usual dosage is 0.5 to 2 mL per injection, injected at various points along the vein. The total dose should not exceed 10 mL. Common adverse reactions may include pain or urticaria at the injection site. Allergic reactions have been reported, including hives, hay fever, asthma, and anaphylactic shock.
Sotradecol (sodium tetradecyl sulfate)
A patient with second or three degree burns may be prescribed this broad spectrum topical antibiotic to reduce the risk of bacterial infection. It is available as a cream and as 5% topical solution (which is packaged as a powder to be dissolved in 1000 mL of sterile water for injection or 0.9% sodium chloride solution for irrigation). It is not known if there is cross sensitivity with this cream in people who are allergic to sulfonamide drugs. The cream is applied after the skin has been cleaned and debrided. Burning and allergic reactions (itching, hives, rash, and edema) are the most common side effects. Metabolic acidosis may also occur due to the drug's metabolite, which can be compensated by hyperventilation.
Sulfamylon (mafenide acetate)
This injectable drug is used as a local and regional anesthetic. It is thought to work by inhibiting ion flow in the sodium channels of nerve cells, thereby inhibiting conduction of nerve impulses. It is available as 0.5%, 1% and 2% solutions. It is also available in the same solution concentrations with epinephrine, a vasoconstrictor that minimizes loss of the anesthetic from the nerve tissue to surrounding areas. Depending on the way this drug is administered, onset of action ranges 1 to 15 minutes and can last between 1-1/2 to 5 hours. The dosage varies widely depending on the procedure, area of administration, and patient's age. Adverse effect may include drowsiness or dizziness; numbness, tingling or burning the treated area; pain, redness or swelling at the injection site; headache; and back pain.
Xylocaine (lidocaine)
This first-generation cephalosporin antibiotic is often used preoperatively to prevent infection that may result from surgical procedures. It is available as a 1 g lyophilized powder for injection. The powder is reconstituted with Sterile Water for Injection. It may be administered either by intramuscular injection into a large muscle mass, or may be diluted with a parenteral solution (i.e., 5% Dextrose Water) and administered by infusion. The usual adult "preop" dosage is 1 g administered intramuscularly or by infusion 30 minutes before the procedure. For procedures longer than 2 hours, an additional 500 mg may be given. Postoperatively, 500 mg to 1 g is given every 6 to 8 hours for 24 hours. Reduced dosages are used in patients with renal (kidney) impairment. The usual pediatric dosage is 25 to 50 mg/kg as a total daily dosage, divided into 3 or 4 equal doses per day. The most common side affects associated with this antibiotic are nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
Ancef (cefazolin)
This gel is indicated to treat diabetic neuropathic ulcers on the feet in which the ulcer extends into the subcutaneous tissue. Adequate blood supply is also required for healing. Once the ulcer has been debrided, this gel is applied to the ulcer and covered with a moist saline dressing. The dressing is removed after 12 hours so that the ulcer can be cleaned. The ulcer is then covered with the moist saline dressing for the next 12 hours. After this initial treatment, the gel is applied once daily to the ulcer until it is healed. This drug is available as a 0.01% gel in 2-g and 15-g tubes. The gel is well tolerated as only a small percentage of patients may develop a rash.
Regranex (becaplermin)