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239 Cards in this Set

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agglutination
the clumping together of cells as a result of interaction with specific antibodies called agglutinins. Agglutinins are used in blood typing and in identifying or estimating the strength of immunoglobulins or immune serums
albumin
a plasma protein In blood, albumin helps to maintain blood volume and blood pressure
allergen
a substance that can produce a hypersensitive reaction in the body
allergy
a hypersensitive reaction to normally harmless antigens, most of which are environmental
anaphylaxis
an exaggerated, life-threatening hypersensitivity reactionto a previously encountered antigen
anisocytosis
an abnormal condition of the blood characterized by red blood cells of variable and abnormal size
antibodies
substances producedby the body in response to bacteria, viruses, or other foreign substances. Each class of antibody is named for its action
antigens
a substance, usually a protein, that causes the formation of an antibody and reacts specifically with that antibody
ascites
an abnormal intraperitoneal (within the peritoneal cavity) accumulation of a fluid containing large amounts of protein and electrolytes
basophil
a granulocytic white blood cell characterized by cytoplasmic granules that stain blue when exposed to a basic dye. Basophils represent 1% or less of the total white blood cell count
bilirubin
the orange-yellow pigment of bile formed principally by the breakdown of hemoglobin in red blood cells afer termination of their normal life span
coagulation
the process of transforming a liquid into a solid, especially of the blood
corpuscle
any cell of the body; a red or white blood cell
differentiation
a process in development in which unspecialized cells or tissues are systematically modified and altered to achieve specific and characteristic physical forms, physiologicc functions, and chemical properties
dyscrasia
an abnormal condition of the blood or bone marrow, such as leukemia, aplastic anemia or prenatal Rh incompatibility
edema
the abnormal accumulation of fluid in interstitial spaces of tissues
electrophoresis
the movement of charged suspended particles through a liquid medium in response to changes in an electric field. Charged particles of a given substance migrate in a predictable direction and at a characteristic speed
enzyme
an organic substance that initiates and accelerates a chemical reaction
eosinophin
a granulocyte, bilobed leukocyte somewhat larger than a neutrophil characterized by large numbers of coarse, refractile, cytoplasmic granules that stain with the acid dye eosin
erythremia
an abnormal increase in the number of red blood cells
erythroblast
an immature red blood cell
erythrocyte
a mature red blood cell
erythropoiesis
the process of red blood cell production
erythropoietin
a hormone synthesized mainly in the kidneys and released into the blood stream in responseto anoxia (lack of oxygen) The hormone acts to stimulate and regulate the production of erythrocytes and is thus able to increase the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood.
fibrin
a stringy, insoluble protein that is the substance of a blood clot
fibrinogen
a plasma protein that is converted into fibrin by thrombin in the presence of calcium ions
globin
a group of four globulin protein molecules that become bound by the iron in home molecules to form hemoglobin
globulin
a plasma portein made in the liver. Globulin helps in the synhesis of antibodies
granulocytes
a type of leukocyte characterized by the presence of cytoplsmic granules
hematologist
a medical specialist in the field of hematology
hematology
the scientific study of blood and blood-forming tissues
heme
the pigmented, iron-containing, nonprotein protion of the hemoglobin molecule. Heme binds and carries oxygen in the red blood cells, releasing it to tissues that give off excess amounts of carbon dioxide
hemoglobin
a complex protein-iron compound in the blood that carries oxygen to the cells from the lungs and carbon dioxide away from the cells to the lungs
hemolysis
the breakdown of red blood cells and the release of hemoglobin that occurs normally at the end of the life span of a red cell
hemorrhage
the loss of a large amount of blood in a short period of time, either externally or internally. Hemorrhage may be arterial, venous, or capillary
hemostasis
the termination of bleeding by mechanical or chemical means or by the complex coagulation process of the body, consisting of vasoconstriction, platelet aggregation and thombin and fibrin synthesis
heparin
a naturally occurring anticlotting factor present in the body
hyperalbuminemia
an increased level of albumin in the blood
hyperbilirubinemia
greater than normal amounts of the bile pigment, bilirubin in the blood
hyperlipemia or hyperlipidemia
an excessive level of blood fats, usually caused by a lipoprotein lipase deficiency or a defect in the converison of low-density lipoproteins to high-density lipoproteins
ion
an electrically charged particle
leukocyte
a white blood cell, one of the formed elements of the circulating blood system
leukocytopenia
an abnormal decrease in number of white blood cells to fewer than 5, 000 cells per cubic millimeter
megakarocyte
an extremely large bone marrow cell
monocyte
a large mononuclear leukocyte
myeloid
of or pertaining to the bone marrow or spinal cord
neutrophil
a polymorphonuclear (multilobed nucleus), granular leukocyte that stains easily with neutral dyes
pancytopenia
a marked reduction in the number of the red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets
plasma
the watery, straw-colored fluid portion of the lymph and the blood in which the leukocytes, erythrocytes and platelets are suspended
platelet
a clotting cell; a thrombocyte
prothrombin
a plamsa protein precursor of thrombin. It is synthesized in the liver if adequate vitamin K is present
reticulocyte
an immature erythrocyte characterized by a meshlike pattern of threads and particles at the former site of the nucleus
septicemia
systemic infection in which pathogens are present in the circulating bloodstream, having spred from an infection in any part of the body
seroconversion
a change in serologic tests from negative to positive as antibodies develop in reaction to an infection or vaccine
serology
the branch of laboratory medicine that studies blood serum for evidence of infection by evaluating antigen-antibody reactions
splenomegaly
an abnormal enlargement of the spleen
stem cell
a formative cell; a cell whose daughter cells may give rise to other cell types
thrombin
an enzyme formed from prothrombin, calcuim and trhomboplastin in plasma during the clotting process; it causes fibrinogen to change to fibrin, which is essential in the formation of a clot
thrombocyte
a clotting cell; a platelet
thrombocytopenia
an abnormal hematologic condition in which the number of platelets is reduced
thromboplastin
a complex substance that initiates the clotting process by converting prothrombin into thrombin in the presence of calcium ion
thrombus
a clot
agglutin/o
to clump
aniso-
unequal
bas/o
base
blast/o, -blast
embryonic stage of development
chrom/o
color
coagul/o
clotting
cyt/o
cell
-emia
blood condition
eosin/o
red, rosy
erythr/o
red
-globin
containing protein
hem/o
blood
hemat/o
blood
is/o
equal
kary/o
nucleus
leuk/o
white
-lytic
destruction
mono-
one
morph/o
form, shape
myel/o
bone marrow or spinal cord
nucle/o
nucleus
-oid
resembling
-osis
condition
-penia
decrease in; deficiency
-phage
to eat
phag/o
to eat
-philia
attraction to
-phoresis
transmission
-poiesis
formation
poikil/o
varied; irregular
sider/o
iron
spher/o
round; sphere
-stasis
stopping or controlling
thromb/o
clot
anemia
a condition in which ther is a deficiency of oxygen being delivered to the cells because of a decrease in the quantity of hemoglobin or red blood cells
anemia, aplastic
also called bone marrow depression anemia, aplastic anemia is characterized by pancytopenia, an inadequacy of the formed blood elements (RBCs, WBCs & platelets)
anemia, hemolytic
characterized by the extreme reduction in ciruclating RBCs due to their destruction
anemia, pernicious
results from a deficiency of mature RBCs and the formation and circulation of megaloblasts (large nucleated, immature, poorly functioning RBCs) with marked poikilocytosis (RBC shaped variation) and anisocytosis (RBC size variation)
anemia, sickle cell
a chronic hereditary form of hemolytic anemia in which the RBCs become shaped like a crescent in the presence of low oxygen concentration.
granulocytosis
an abnormally elevated number of granulocytes in the ciruclating blood as a reaction to any variety of inflammation or infection
hemochromatosis
a rare iron metabolism disease characterized by iron deposits throughout the body, usually as a complication of one of the hemolytic anemias
hemophilia
involves different hereditary inadequacies of coagulation factors resulting in prolonged bleeding times.
leukemia (ALL, AML & CML)
an excessive uncontrolled increase of immature WBCs in the blood eventually leading to infection, anemia, and thrombocytopenia (decreased number of platelets)
AML (acute myelogenous leukemia)
predominated by immature granulocytes
acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)
predominated by immature lymphocytes and develops most frequently in chldren and adolescents
(CML) Chronic myelogenous leukemia
has immature and mature granulocytes existing in the bloodstream and bone marrow
(CLL) Chronic lymphocytic leukemia
predominated by exceptional amounts of lymphocytes found in the spleen, bone marrow, and lymph nodes that are abnormal, small and mature
multiple myeloma (plasma cell myeloma)
A malignant plasma cell neoplasm, multiple myeloma causes an increase in the number of both mature and immature plasma cells, which often entirely replace the bone marrow and destroy the skeletal structure
polycythemia vera
an abnormal increase in the number of RBCs, granulocytes and thrombocytes leading to an increase in blood volume and viscosity (thickness)
purpura
a collection of blood beneath the skin in the form of pinpoint hemorrhages appearing as red-purple skin discoloration.
Thalassemia
a hereditary form of hemolytic anemia in which the alpha or beta hemoglobin chains are defective and the production of hemoglobin is deficient, creating hypochromic microcytic RBCs
direct antiglobulin test (Coomb's test)
used to discover the presence of antierythrocyte antibodies present in the blood of an Rh negative woman. The production of these antibodies is associated with an Rh incompatibility between a pregnant Rh negative woman and her Rh positive fetus.
bleeding time
measurement of the time required for bleeding to stop
blood transfusion
an administration of blood or a blood component to an individual to replace blood lost through surgery, trauma, or disease
bone marrow biopsy
the microscopic exam of bone marrow tissue, which fully evaluates hematopoiesis by revealing the number, shape, and size of the RBCs and WBCs and platelet precursors.
bone marrow transplant
after receiving an intravenous infusion of agressive chemotherapy or total-body irradiation to destroy all malignant cells and to inactivate the immune system, a donor's bone marrow cells are infused intravenously into the recipient.
complete blood cell count (CBC)
a series of tests performed on the peripheral blookd, which inexpensively screens for problems in the hematologic system as well as several other organ systems.
Includes:
RBC count, Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, RBC indices, WBC count, WBC differential, blood smear, platelet count
erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
a test performed on the blood, which measures the rate at which red blood cells settle out of a tube of unclotted blood. The ESR is determined by measuring the settling distance of RBCs in normal saline over 1 hour. ESR will be increased in pneumonia, acute myocardial infarction, severe anemia, and cancer. ESR will be decreased in congestive heart failure, sickle cell anemia, polycythemia vera and angina pectoris
hematocrit
an assessment of RBC percentage in the total blood volume.
hemoglobin test
concentration measurement of the hemoglobin in the peripheral blood. As a vehicle for transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide, hemoglobin levels provide information about the body's ability to supply tissues with oxygen
lipid profile
a lipid profile measures the lipids in the blood.
partial thromboplastin time (PTT)
a blood test used to evaluate the common pathway and system of clot formation within the body
platelet count
the count of platelets per cubic millimeter of blood. Counts of 150,000 - 400,000 mm3 are deemed normal
prothrombin time (PT)
is a blood test used to evaluate the common pathway and extrinsic system of clot formation. Normal pt is 11.0 to 12.5 seconds. Critical value is over 20 seconds.
red blood cell count (RBC)
the measurement of the circulating number of RBCs in 1 mm3 of peripheral blood.
Normal for females is 4.2 -6.2 million/cubic milimeters and in males is 4.6 - 6.2 million/cubic milimeters
red blood cell morphology
is an examination of the RBC on a stained blood smear that enables the examiner to identify the form and shape of the RBCs.
reticulocyte count
a measurement of the number of circulating reticulocytes, immature erythrocytes, in a blood specimen.
rouleaux
an aggregation of RBCs viewed through the microscope that may be an artifact or may occur with persons with multiple myeloma as a result of abnormal proteins
Schilling Test
a diagnostic analysis for pernicious anemia
white blood cell count (WBC)
the measurement of the circulating number of WBCs in 1 mm3 of peripheral blood.
white blood cell differential
a measurement of the percentage of each specific type of circulating WBCs present in 1 mm3 of peripheral blood drawn for the WBC count.
Ab
antibody
Ag
antigen
ABO
blood groups: A, AB, B and O
AHF
antihemophilic factor (blood coagulation factor VIII)
AHG
antihemolytic globulin
ALL
acute lymphatic leukemia
AML
acute myelogenous leukemia (Lou Gherig's disease)
BMT
bone marrow transplant
CBC
complete blood (cell) count
CLL
cholesterol-lowering lipid chronic lymphocytic leukemia
diff. diag.
differential diagnosis
eos.
eosinophil
ESR
erythrocyte sedimentation rate
G-CSF
granulocyte colony-stimulating factor
GM-CSF
granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor
Hb, Hbg, Hgb
hemoglobin
Hct
hematocrit
HDL
high-density lipoprotein
IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, IgM
imunoglobulin A, D, E, G, and M respectively
LDL
low-density lipoprotein
lymph
lymphocyte
MCH
mean cell hemoglobin
MCHC
mean cell hemoglobin concentration
MCV
mean cell volume
mono.
monocyte
poly.
polymorphonuclear leukocyte
PMN
polymorphonuclear neutrophil (leukocytes)
PA
pernicious anemia
PT
prothrombin time
PTT
partial thromboplastin time
RBC
red blood cell (erythrocyte)
segs
segmented neutrophils
VLDL
very-low-density lipoprotein
WBC
white blood cell count (WBC)
acquired immunity
immunity that is a result of the body developing the ability to defend itself against a specific agent, as a result of having had the disease or from having received an immunization against a disease.
adenoids
masses of lymphatic tissue located near the opening of the nasal cavity into the pharynx; also called the pharyngeal tonsils
edema
the accumulation of fluid within the tissue spaces
hypersensitivity
an abnormal condition characterized by an excessive reaction to a particular stimulus
immune reaction (immune response)
a defense function of the body that produces antibodies to destroy invading antigens and malignancies
immunity
the state of being resistant to or protected from a disease; the individual is said to be immune
immunization
the process of creating immunity to a specific disease
immunologist
the health specialist whose training and experience is concentrated in immunology
immunology
the study of the reaction of the tissues to the immune system of the body to antigen stimulation
immunotherapy
a special treatment of allergic responses that administers increasingly large doses of the offending allergens to gradually develop immunity
local reaction
a reaction to treatment that occurs at the site where it was administered
lymph
interstitial fluid picked up by the lymphatic capillaries and eventually returned to the blood; once the interstitial fluid enters the lymphatic vessels, it is known as lymph.
lymphadenopathy
any disorder of the lymph nodes or lymph vessels
lymphocyte
small, agranulocytic leukocytes, originating from fetal stem cells and developing in the bone marrow
macrophage
any phagocytic cell involved in the defense against infection and in the disposal of the products of the breakdown of cells. Macrophages are found in the lymph nodes, liver, spleen, lungs, brain and spinal cord
natural immunity
immunity with which we are born; also called genetic immunity
pathogens
disease-producing microorganisms
phagocytosis
the process of a cell engulfing and destroying bacteria
resistance
the body's ability to counteract the effects of pathogens and other harmful agents
susceptible
a state of having a lack of resistance to pathogens and other harmful agents; for example, the individual is said to be susceptible
T cells
cells that are important in the immmune response; they mature in the thymus. Upon maturation, the T cells enter the blood and circulate throughout the body, providing defense against disease by attacking foreing and/or abnormal cells.
tonsils
masses of lymphatic tissue located in a protective ring, just under the mucous membrane, surrounding the mouth and back of the throat
cyto-
cell
hyper-
excessive
immun/o-
immune, protection
lymph/o-
lymph
lymphaden/o
lymph gland
lymphangi/o
lymph vessel
mon/o
one
sarc/o
flesh
cytomegalovirus
a large species-specific herpes-type virus with a wide variety of disease effects. It causes serious illness in persons with AIDS, in newborns and in individuals who are being treated with immunosuppressive drugs (as in individuals who have received an organ transplant) The virus usually results in retinal or gastrointestinal infection
hypersensitivity
tissue damage resulting from exaggerated immune responses
hypersplenism
a syndrome involving a deficiency of one or more types of blood cells and an enlarged spleen
Kaposi's sarcoma
a locally destructive malignant neoplasm of the blood vessels associated with AIDS typically forming lesions appear initially as tiny red to purple macules and evolve into sizable nodules or plaques
lymphoma
a lymphoid tissue neoplasm that is typically malignant, beginning with a painless enlarged lymph node and progressing to anemia, weakness, fever and weight loss.
mononucleosis
usually caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), mononucleosis typically is a benign, self-limiting acute infection of the B lymphocytes
myasthenia gravis
an autoimmune disease in which antibodies block or destroy some acetylcholine receptor sites
pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP)
caused by a common worldwide parasite, pneumocystis carinii, for which most people have immunity if they are not severely immunocompromised
sarcoidosis
is a systemic inflammatory disease resulting in the formation of multiple small, rounded lesions (granulomas) in the lungs (comprising 90%), lymph nodes, eyes, liver, and other organs
systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
an inflammatory connective tissue disease, chronic in nature, in which immune complexes are formed from the reaction of SLE autoantibodies and their corresponding antigens; these immune complexes are deposited in the connective tissues of lymphatic vessels, blood vessels, and other tissues
tuberculosis
an infectious disease, chronic in nature, primarily affecting the lungs, causing large areas of cavitations and caseous (cheeselike) necrosis
enzyme-linked imunosorbent assay (ELISA)
a blood test used for screening for an antibody to the AIDS virus
western blot
detects the presences of the antibodies to HIV, the virus that causes AIDS
CT (CAT) scan
a collection of x-ray images taken from various angles following injection of a contrast medium
lymphangiogram
an x-ray assesment of the lymphatic system following injection of a contrast medium into the lymph vessels in the hand or foot
ARC
AIDS related complex
AIDS
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
CDC
Centers for Disease control and prevention
CMV
cytomegalovirus
EBV
Epstein-Barr virus
ELISA
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
diff. diag.
differential diagnosis
eos.
eosinophil
ESR
erythrocyte sedimentation rate
G-CSF
granulocyte colony-stimulating factor
GM-CSF
granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor
Hb, Hbg, Hgb
hemoglobin
Hct
hematocrit
HDL
high-density lipoprotein
IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, IgM
imunoglobulin A, D, E, G, and M respectively
LDL
low-density lipoprotein
lymph
lymphocyte
MCH
mean cell hemoglobin
MCHC
mean cell hemoglobin concentration
MCV
mean cell volume
mono.
monocyte
Histo
histology
HIV
Human immunodeficiency virus
HSV
Herpes simplex virus
ITP
idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
KS
Kaposi's sarcoma
SLE
systemic lupus erythematosus