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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A scientist who studies Earth
Geologist
Earth's outermost layer
Crust
Earth's thickest layer, this layer is below the crust
Mantle
this layer is liquid rock
Outer core
The solid, innermost layer of our Earth
inner core
Transfer of heat energy through solid matter
Conduction
Transfer of heat energy through liquid matter
Convection
the cycling of heated matter because of the differences in density; scientists believe this is why the plates move
convection currents
The super continent
Pangaea
the idea that continents move from one part of Earth to another
continental drift
Earth's crust is made of 12 of these
plates
the theory that explains how and why plates move
plate tectonics
the underwater mountain range along the ocean floor
mid-ocean ridge
a valley that runs along the crest of the mid-ocean ridge
rift
melted rock found within the earth
magma
narrow, deep regions of the ocean floor at the edges of plates
trenches
the sliding of one plate under the other
subduction
the process in which new ocean crust is being created at one edge of a plate, and crust is being subducted at the other edge
sea-floor spreading
a boundary where two plates are moving apart
divergent boundary
a place where two plates come together and collide
convergent boundary
a boundary where crust is not created or destroyed, the plates just slide past each other
transform boundary
another word for forces
stresses
land that is raised, broad, and flat
plateau
mountains created when forces push toward each other, causing the crust to wrinkle
folded mountains
mountains formed when one plate is pushed up against another, creating one steep side
fault mountains
mountains formed when the crust between two boundaries is pushed up
fault-block mountains
when two plates slide past one another but do not create mountains
lateral fault
mountains formed by magma pushing up on the crust from below
dome mountains
vibration of the ground caused by the release of energy when rocks slip or break
earthquake
the point in the crust or upper mantle where an earthquake's energy is released
focus
waves that make the earth shake; these move out from the focus
seismic waves
the point on the surface of the earth that is directly above the focus
epicenter
the instrument used to measure the earthquake's waves
seisomograph
the measure of the energy released in an earthquake
magnitude
when earthquakes occur underwater, this sea wave may occur
tsunami
a mountain that forms around a vent where magma is released from the earth
volcano
lava leaves the surface of the earth through this opening
vent
magma that reaches Earth's surface
lava
area in Earth's mantle that is hotter than the surrounding area; the Hawaiian islands were formed in this way
hot spots