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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define: Expectations for Relationships
Communication is central to establishing and maintaining relational expectations. Overt communication only gives a partial glimpse into relationships; there is often more under the surface.
Define: Relational Dynamics
Relationships exist on a dynamic between *less* intimacy and *more* intimacy.
Define: Initiating
i. Process of first coming together. At this stage communicators are simply trying to display pleasantness and likeability. In observing others, our personal awareness is sometimes very low.
How do specific messages within the initiating stage vary?
Type of relationship (for instance, stranger vs. friend). The time allowed. How much time passed since the last meeting. Situational constraints. Special codes for particular groups.
Definte: Experiments
Process of discovering the unknown. We look for an area of common interest or experience. We spend a lot of time experimenting — we are searching for a self that would be desirable to others. Most of our relationships probably don’t progress very far beyond this stage.
What are 3 predictions in interpersonal encounters within experimental stage?
1) cultural information, 2) sociological information, and 3) psychological information.
Describe the functions of small talk within the experimental stage?
1) uncover integrating topics (i.e., common interests and experiences), 2) helps us audition for future friendship, 3) is a safe procedure for indicating who we are, and 4) maintains a sense of community.
Define: Intensifying
i. Process of reaching “close friend” status—more active participation and greater awareness of process.
ii. Request for physical/psychological favors and validate existence of intensity. Also, amount of personal disclosure increases (especially those dealing with the development of the relationship).iv. Nonverbal message transmission also increases.
Verbally, what happens in the Intensifying stage?
a) forms of address are more informal, b) use of 1st person plural (we vs. I), c) private symbols begin to develop (for instance, “in-jokes” or references to things that other people wouldn’t know about), d) verbal shortcuts used based on shared experiences, e) more direct expressions of commitment, f) spending time trying to understand what your partner is all about.
Define: Integrating
i. Two individual personalities seem to fuse together. This phase is called “coupling.”
ii. Verbal/nonverbal manifestations or integrating take many forms
iii. Integrating does not mean complete togetherness or complete loss of individuality.
Define: Bonding
i. Public ritual that announces to the world that commitments have been formally contracted (institutionalization of the relationship) e.g., engagement, marriage, etc.
ii. May be a powerful force in changing the nature of the relationship.
Define: Deflating
i. This stage is the process of disengaging or uncoupling.
ii. Individual differences are a major focus and serve to increase interpersonal distance.
iii. “We” goes back to “I” orientation—communication now characterized by what distinguishes two people.
iv. Most visible communication is in the form of fighting or conflict.
Define: Circumscribing
i. Information exchange (quality and quantity) decreases. Communication becomes constricted and there is less total interaction.
ii. Less breadth and depth. Familiar phrases like “don’t ask me about that” (pg 44) are typical.
iii. Has an impact on public social performances.
Define: Stagnating
i. At this stage, many areas are closed off and efforts to communicate effectively are at a standstill.
ii. Participants are simply “marking time” in the relationship.
iii. No topic of substance is brought up because partners reason that they already know what the outcome will be.
iv. Partners may engage in imagined dialogues. (“I know what he’ll say...”)
Define: Avoiding
i. This stage is the process of disengaging or uncoupling.
ii. Individual differences are a major focus and serve to increase interpersonal distance.
iii. “We” goes back to “I” orientation—communication now characterized by what distinguishes two people.
iv. Most visible communication is in the form of fighting or conflict.
Define: Terminiating
i. End of the relationship—can either fade away, burn out, or something in-between.
ii. Characterized by messages of distance and disassociation: 1) distance—attempts to put physical/psychological barriers up, 2) disassociation—preparing the other for life apart from each other.
Describe Termination dialogue.
1. Summary statement.
2. Behavior that signal the end.
3. Messages that indicate what the future will look like.
Describe Social Change Theories.
a) in relationships, we are constantly exchanging resources, b) these resources are evaluated as rewarding or not, and c) people have a tendency to seek things which are rewarding.
ii. Rules which govern exchange: equity—what you get from the relationship = what you put in, equality rule—each partner is perceived as giving/benefiting equally, need-based rule—exchange resources in response to partner’s needs.
iii. Rewards and Costs – figure out if the rewards of the relationship are worth the costs.
Describe why we give favors.
1) is dependent on the other 2) is returning a favor receieved 3) wants to obligate the other in the future 4) rewarded by seeing the other person enjoy the favor given.
Describe why we don't give favors.
1)doesn't think a similar favor will be needed in return 2) feels the relationship will suffer by granting the favor 3) doesn't think the favor can be returned 4) doesn't have the time or resources to give the favor 5)doesn't tink the other needs or will benefit from the behavior.
Describe the Analysis of the Current Encounter.
Evaluating reward versus cost. The greater the ratio of rewards to costs, the more satisfied you are likely to be with the relationship. If always trying to get highest rewards with least cost, good for superficial relations, but bad for long term: other person feels like a loser.
Describe the Analysis of Past Encounters.
Compare to past experiences. As these long term relationships experience problems, the demand for more immediate rewards may increase. Sometimes cost initially, but later is rewarding in long-term.
Describe the Analysis of Future Encounters.
Whether it will be rewarding to interact with this person in the future. What will be the relative rewads and costs derived from interacting at our current stage of the relationship.
Define: Norm of reciprocity
that there is a strong tendency on the part of human beings to respond in kind to the behavior they receive.
Define: imitation.
Hostility may evoke hostility. Reciprocated response usually follows soon after the initial reponse and is generally less conscious. Still operates within a reward-cost framework.
define: Emotional contagion
where one person's feeling state is assumed and reflected by others present.
describe: Directions available for movement
i. Movement is generally systematic and sequential.
ii. Movement may be forward.
iii. Movement may be backward.
iv. Movement is always to a new place
describe: rate of movement
great deal of variance depending on the relationship.