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71 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
nature of human talk
to talk is to...
be human, define ourselves, share ourselves, think, communicate, be multidimensional
nature of public talk
sends messages:
problem exists, can be overcome, impt enough to risk public exposure, you're willing to be changed, audience is willing to be changed
unique features of public talk
message relevant to group as a whole, language is more restricted and less flexible, audience diverse, larger size of audience may mean more misinterpretation, must do more complete job of preparing, difficult to focus listeners' attn on your msg, potential to accomplish a lot of attitudinal change b/c large number of people
risks of public talk
expresses personality
invites evaluation (audience has people impt to you, larger than usual)
unpredictable consequences (unsure of self, audience and dynamics of speaking situation)
channel
medium through which a message passes on its way from source to reciever
communication
PROCESS whereby one person STIMULATES meaning in the mind of another through VERBAL/NONVERBAL means
content
substantive aspect of a message
decoding
receiver's act of attaching meaning to a message sent by a source
encoding
source's act of transforming an idea into a msg to transmit to receiver
fidelity
extent to which msg after transmission is similar to msg originally transmitted
(how true it is)
labeling
interpreting a situation and treating the interpretation as real
message
the result of an act of encoding
punctuation
the way in which people segment a sequence of words or behaviors
relationship
affective aspect of msg
propositions about interpersonal comm
1 - verbal and nonverbal
2 - cannot not comm
3 - expresses content and relationship
4 - meanings are in people
5 - irreversible
6 - neutral tool
7 - learned skill
8 - takes place in physical and psychological contexts
types of nonverbal comm
repeating
accenting
complementing
regulating
contradicting (sarcasm)
effective comm in relation to intentional and unintentional msgs
effective comm occurs when BOTH receiver and source view msg as either unintentional or intentional and not a mixture of the two
cognitive restructuring
helps ppl who are anxious reduce fears by changing unrealistic beliefs to more realistic ones (in cognitive therapy)
cognitive therapy
helps alleviate ppl's fears through directed conversation (also cognitive restructuring)
communication apprehension
predisposition to avoid situations that require comm
conspicuousness
feeling that you are an unwelcome focus of attn
dispositional comm anxiety
anxiety about comm in most situations; "trait-like anxiety"
-don't do as well in school and work
-attributed to inadequate positive reinforcement, poor skill development, and lack of good models
labeling
interpreting a situation and treating the interpretation as real
learned helplessness
learning thru experience that you can't change a situation (and therefore don't even try) - mixed signals
positive reinforcement
reward for engaging in some activity (ex: audience applauding)
-inadequate-dispositional shyness-rewarded for not talking, receiving no response when talk
reframing
recasting your interpretation of an event from a different perspective
reticence
shyness or communication apprehension
rigid rules
standards for behavior that people don't alter even when the situation warrants
shyness
tendency of a person to avoid social interaction
systematic desensitization
therapeutic technique to help anxious people reduce their fears by associating comm w/relaxation
talkaholic
compulsive communicator; cannot shut up
visualization
therapeutic technique that helps anxious ppl reduce their fears by visualizing positive outcomes of future experiences
properties of stage fright
-fear evaluation
-increases when unprepared
-increases when you feel conspicuous
-increases when hold to rigid rules
-increases with negative self-talk
academic integrity
commitment, even in the face of adversity, to honesty, trust, fairness, respect, and responsibility
blatant plagiarism
purposefully stealing another person's work and representing it as your own
cheating
trying to get a better grade by trickery or deceit
credo
statement of beliefs
ethics
general study of right and wrong
faulty paraphrasing
plagiarism as a consequence of incorrectly rewording the meaning of another's work
proprietary knowledge
info belonging to another person, including less well known facts, statistics, ideas, etc
scholastic dishonesty
act designed to give unfair advantage to student
thought process that allows ppl to feel ethical while behaving unethically
-no harm, no foul
-appealing to higher loyalties (parents)
-denying personal responsibility
-condemning condemner (if YOU didn't make it so hard!)
backchanneling cues
cues to let the speaker know you're listening
discriminate
to mark or perceive the distinguishing or peculiar features of (by discerning or exposing diffs)
hearing
physical process of sound waves bouncing off eardrum
listening & steps involved
active
-receiving
-understanding
-remembering
-evaluating
-responding
receive
first stage of hearing - when you receive the msg or listen to it
subjective listening
listening that is peculiar to a certain individual; listening skills are modified/affected by personal views, experience, background, etc
how to become a better listener
-adapt to speaker's delivery (focus on msg more than delivery style)
-listen with eyes and ears (unspoken msgs)
-monitor emotional reaction to msg
-avoid jumping to conclusions
-be a selfish listener (find ways to benefit from msg)
-listen for major ideas
-identify listening goals (pleasure, empathize, evaluate, gain info)
-practice listening
-taking notes
-be an active listener (re-sort, rephrase, summarize, repeat key pnts, etc)
brainstorming
creative process of generating uninterrupted, unevaluated ideas
closed question
invites a limited shortened response
clustering
the process of grouping similar ideas together to identify particular themes or topic areas
dialogic interview
both parties ask/answer ?s
directive interview
all questions asked by interviewer and answered by interviewee
double-barreled question
simultaneously asks two questions
guessing question
a question that guesses at its own answer w/o waiting for input from respondent
ex: i guess you came to did that b/c you were angry?
interviewing
interactive process b/w two parties - one party has predetermined and seious purpose where interaction involves asking/answering questions to achieve that purpose
leading question
a question that attempts to steer the interviewee toward a particular response
open question
invites an elaborated, detailed response
primary question
introduces a new topic or new idea w/in topic
rapport
sense of relationship
secondary question
derived from primary question and probes for additional info
speedy question
derived from primary question and probes for additional info
starter
the words you use to begin a question
closed questions - do, will, can, is
open questions - tell me about, what, describe, explain
either - what, how
nonscheduled interviews
so broad you want to let the conversation direct structure
+ no preconceived ideas/expectations
- easy to go over in time & content
highly scheduled interviews
detailed flowchart w/questions
+ consistency and comparability across reponses
- ties hands of interviewers, little room for interviewees to expand or volunteer unexpected but potentially valuable info
moderately scheduled interviews
divides interview into specific, major questions w/possible probing questions under each
=1 major question/2 min
nudging probes/encouragement probes
encourage a respondent who has stopped short of providing sufficient info
"Go on" "really?" "uh huh"
restatement probes
ask a question in a diff way to steer back on topic or exert subtle pressure
"we were talking about ____. what ___?'
summary probes
recap or paraphrase ideas and thoughts of respondent and reflect them back for comment
"so what you mean is ____"
closing probes
to close the door on a particular question to move on to another question
"anything else before we move on?"