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85 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Analytic Remarks
non evaluative
expression of disagreement
denial of responsibility
"you should..."
Confrontational Remarks
when people tell you how you feel
Conciliatory Remarks
statements indicate understanding
flexibility, accepting responsibility
Integration (conflict strategy)
>Active and agreeable
problem is defined >cooperatively
>seek mutual benefit
>High level of speech productivity and eye contact
>fewer adaptors and shorter response times
>Active and disagreeable
>less eye contact and high speech rate
>animated gestures
>speak loudly
Avoidance (conflict strategy)
>agreeable or disagreeable
>withholding or withdrawing from the interaction
>less speech productivity
>more adaptors
>less eye contact
Conflict Styles
tendency to demonstrate similar tactics across situations
>high concern for self and other
>problem solving
high concern for other
>low concern for self
>accomodation of need of other
>agape love style
low concern for self and other
>can be cooperative or competitive
high concern for self
low concern for other
>win/lose perspective
moderate concern for self and other
Irreverent remarks
silly remarks
Noncommital Remarks
Tangential remarks
>related but not directly dealing with the issue
Topic Management
change the subject
2 dimensions of tactics
disagreeableness and activeness
no objective basis for conflict
has objective but neither party perceives it
"conflict waiting to happen"
perceptions of the source of conflict are inaccurate
"yell @ roomie for smoking in the house when it was actually a co-worker of the roomie"
has objective basis but perceptions of the reason for conflict are not totally accurate
"breakup example": distance is the conflict, girl thinks its cause shes being a jerk, but really boy is planning on breaking up
has no objective and is accurately perceived
specific behavior
(level of conflict)
"where to go for dinner"
Relational Norms and roles
(levels of conflict)
expectations for the relationship
ie come home late w/o calling; call is expected
personal characteristics and attitudes
(levels of conflict)
problem with someones personality or beliefs
ie: religious beliefs
Positive Consequences of Conflict
provide motivation for learning about the world
sharpens current perspective and attitude
strengthens relational bonds
Negative Consequences of Conflict
Hampers efficiency of coordination
requires a good deal of communication effort and energy.
weakening of peoples self concept
Useful Assumptions about conflict
not necessarily negative
occurs for many reasons
takes many forms
perceived divergence of interest or a belief that the parties current aspirations cannot be achieve simultaneously
incompatibility of goals
Intimacy and Accuracy
>intimacy increases confidence in ability to detect lies
>confidence increases truth bias
>truth bias decreases accuracy
>in negative relationship lie bias becomes more likely
intimacy increases confidence which increases truth bias which decreases accuracy
Lie bias
perception that people are being dishonest
Truth Bias
perception that others are behaving honestly
Behavioral adaptation
people who have been probed are more honest because they change their behavior
Probing heuristic
due to the perceived difficulty of lying in response to a probe, people being probed tend to tell the truth
a tendency to assume that someone belongs to a ceratain group if he/she resembles or represents a typical member
falsifiability heuristic
communications are more likely to be classified as lies when the number and richness of falisfiable features increase
Infrequency heuristic
people use their perceptions of infrequency or unexpectedness of an event to determine veracity
uses base rate or prior likeliehood to determine whether or not someone is lying
probablility of an event
more adaptors
make more speech errors
pause more
have higher pitch
longer response latencies
shorter talk duration-include less irrelavent info
liars blink more
pupils are more dialated
Assumed Deception Cues
less eye contact
more smiling
more adaptors
more speech errors
more postural shifting
longer messages
reasons for poor accuracy
no set of behavior that infalibly distinguish deception
people rely on useless cues or ignore useful cues
peoples veracity judgement are affected by biases
Veracity Effect
Our default setting is on believing what others are saying
occurs when a person alters the amount of info that should be provided, the veracity of the information presented, the relevance of info provided or the clarity of info provided
Benign Fabrications
created in the interest of the person contained by them
if it is not done in their interest, is is at least not done against their interests
doing it in your interest, but not against or harming anothers interests
Exploitive Fabrications
motivated by the private interests of the deceiver
"lying to get alcohol (about age) could get server or restaurant in trouble
outright falshoods, straight lying
omission, leaving things out
distortion, avoid making an explicit statement
(garbage truck driver example)
Change subject norms
(implications for persuassion)
add a salient referent
change the normative belief attributed to a referent
Attitude change
(implications for persuasion)
add salient beliefs
change the belief strength or evaluation of existing belief
a psychological tendency that is expressed by evaluation a particular entity w/some degree of favor or disfavor
Subjective norm
funtion of normative expectations of salient others and their motivation to comply with each referent(salient other)
Attitude (TRA)
Attitude is a function of salient beliefs and an evaluation of each belief
people assign more value to opportunities when they are less available
"limited number and deadline tactics"
we follow the requests of people who we perceive to be a lefitimate authority
trappings of authority:badges uniforms etc
physical attractiveness/halo effect
people prefer to comply with people they know and like
Social Proof
when uncertain how to act people look to the behaviors of others
most influential under 2 conditions: situational ambiquity and similarity
ie peer pressure
can be accomplished by removing incentives or adding costs
ie see an ad go to store to buy it, they're out so you buy something else instead
Foot in the Door
small initial request obtaining compliance, followed by a much larger request
size of initial request matters
not necessary for same person to make both requests
commitment and Consistency
consistency between attitudes and behaviors
psychological consistency
obtaining initial commitment then utilize desire to be consistent
Door in the face
a denial of a first large request produces a higher acceptance of a second smaller request than if just the second request was asked alone
size of initial request matters
minimize time between requests
same person makes requests
Norm of reciprocity
people help those who help them
a favor can lead to obligation, gratitude and/or liking
Fixed action patterns
"have a nice day" "you too"
taxi driver: "have a nice trip"
you: "you too"
Mindfullness vs mindlessness
two people reading passages one gets a lot of distractions and can't recall what she has just read
>induce behavior is consistent with target and value system
>is intrinsically rewarding
>behavior and opinions adopted because they are useful
>can be rational or irrational
>public and private acceptance
target adopts behavior from social agent because this behavior is associated with a satifying self defining relationship with social agent
public and private acceptance
target accepts influence from social agent in order to achieve a favorable reaction from social agent
target learn to do or say what is expected in certain situations
public behavior not private acceptance
power based on perception that the social agent is knowledgable in some given area
initial acceptance of validity of the content
If a person is attracted to the social agent then the person will desire increased association with them
power of the social agent lies in the targets desire to initiate or maintain a relationship
person gains satisfaction based on indentification with the social agent
power based on internalized values that indicate that a social agent has the right to influence and the target feels obligated to accept this influence
legitimacy is not only a basis of power but a role
Social agents power is based on the targets belief that punishment will occur if their is a failure to conform
social agents power lies in the ability to reward the target
4 variables of uncertainty and stability
amount of comm between individual and partners network
amount of support for the relationship expressed by partners network
amount of comm w/partner
amount of perceived similarity to partner
eager for intense relationship w/intimacy and strong physical attraction
romantic lovers-in love w/love
high in self disclosure always trying to please other
sex is early perceived as perfect
complete commitment, serial monogamists
playful in love, players
dont really fall in love
very romantic
low in self disclosure
avoid commitment and dependency
not possesive or jealous
dating is fun for them
searches for the person with the right vital statistics: job, age, religion etc
choose to be in love
sensible and rational in relationship decisions
try to increase sig others market value
very aware of alternatives for relationships
demanding and possesive toward the beloved and has a feeling of being "out of control"
jealous dependent, needy
don't handle separation well
altruistic, loving without concern for receiving anything in return
in love w/love
patient, selfless, supportive, love unconditionally
prefers slowly developing attachments that lead to lasting commmitment
dont really fall in love
sex comes later, not driving force
want stability
do not fantasize
handle separation well
person receives fewer benefits than deserved on the basis of contributions made
feel angry or resentful because they are giving more
more unpleasant than being over benefited
person receives more benefits than deserved on the basis of contributions made (guilt)
Equity Theory
people are most satisfied with a relationship when the ratio between benefits and contributions is similar for both partners
comparison level
general expected outcome in a relationship
satisfaction minus comparison level for alternatives plus investments =
resources put into a relationship that cannot be retrieved if that relationship ends
Comparison level for alternatives CLalt
the general outcome people expect from alternative relationships or lifestyles