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230 Cards in this Set

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What four parts is the diencephalon divided into
epithalamus
thalamus
subthalamus
hypothalamus
The Epithalamus: Pineal Gland- what is it?
secrets?
imp in regulation of?
pineal tumor may cause?
- an endocrine organ involved with reproductive cycles( in other species)
- secrets melatonin( hormone which inhibits production of reproductive cells in darkness (mating season)
- important in regulation of circadian rhythms -sleep-wake cycles (in humans)
- pineal tumor may cause precocious puberty
What is found inferior to the thalamus and lateral to the hypothalamus
subthalamus
The subthalamus contains what
part of the red nucleus and substantia nigra
what nuclei does the subthalamus contain
subthalmic nuclei
damage to subthalamic nuclei could lead to
abnormal movement
the subthalamic nuclei is interconnected with
the basal ganglia
What does the thalamus look like
large egg shaped nuclear mass
what is the thalamus
sensory gateway to cortex except taste info
all sensory pathways _____ in the thalamus
relay
anatomical loops comprising ______(3) invovle thalamic relay
cerebellar, basal ganglionic, and limbic pathways
the various systems utilize separate portions of the thalamus- subdivided into
series of nuclei based on location and function
List the 4 types of relay nuclei in the thalamus
1. specific relay nuclei
2. association nuclei
3. non-specific nuclei
4. subcortical nuclei
the specific relay nuclei receive what? project where?
receive well-defined bundles of fibers and projects to particular functional areas of the cortex
the sensory relay nuclei include (3)
1. the VPL/VPM: output to the somatosensory cortex

VPL: somatosensory input from the body (STT, ML)
VPM: somatosensory input from the head (solitary, TTT)

2. the geniculate nuclei
-lateral geniculate nucleus- visual system
- medial geniculate nucleus- auditory system

3. the motor relay nuclei
-input from the cerebellum and the basal ganglia and output to the motor and premotor cortex (VA, VL)
blood supply to the thalamus comes mostly from
branches of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA)
lesion, especially in the posterior thalamus can cause
thalamic syndrome
symptoms of thalamic syndrome:
1. thalamic pain- triggered by somatosensory stimuli
2. loss of somatic sensation in the contralateral head and body
- abolished discriminative tactile sensibility (hemianesthesia)
- impaired position sense- sensory type ataxia
The hypothalamus interconnects with
various components of the limbic system
Interconnects with various
visceral and somatic nuclei of the brainstem and spinal cord (via reticular formation)
Function aspects of the hypothalamus:

involved in overall control of the
autonomic nervous system
list five things hypothalamus controls
1. feeding and drinking behavior
2. temperature regulation
3. gut motility
4. sexual activity
5. emotional behavior
lesion of hypothalamus results in
1. difficulty in maintaining body temperature
2. eating and drinking disorder
-hyperphasia- gross overeating-obesity
-aphagia- undereating- starvation
-adipsia- drinking disorder (not drinking)
3. personality change
-irritability and rage( abnormal emotional response- hypothalamic rage
4. sexual dysfunction (too much)
5. somnolence- sleepy
the internal capsule-what passes through the internal capsule
both descending fibers from the cortex and ascending fibers from the thalamus pass through the internal capsule
Boundaries:
laterally:
Inferiorly:
superiorly:
laterally: lenticular nucleus
inferiorly: funnel down to the cerebral peduncles
superiorly: fanning out into the corona radiata
list the five regions of the internal capsule
1. anterior limb
2. posterior limb
3. genu
4. retrolenticular part
5. sublenticular part
the posterior limb carries what from what to what? contains?
carry motor fibers from the thalamus to the motor/premotor cortex. contains corticospinal and corticobulbar fibers
the posterior limb carries somatosensory fibers from ....to....
from the VPL and VPM of thalamus to the postcentral gyrus
Genu region contains fibers to
the motor/premotor cortex
genu is imp in the integration of
cerebellum, basal ganglia, and premotor cortex
lesion to genu cause
significant deficit in motor control
the retrolenticular part interconnects the
thalamus to the parietal-occipital-temporal association cortex.
disruption to the retrolenticular part causes
aphasia
the sublenticular part contains
optic radiation to the visual cortex from the LGN and the auditory radiation fibers from the MGN to the auditory cortex
blood supply to the internal capsule is mainly by the
lenticulostriate arteries
posterior limb lesion results in
contralateral hemiparesis (weakness) and contralateral hemianesthesia ( loss of sensation
retrolenticular or sublenticular lesion results in (3)
1. visual deficit- homonymous hemianopsia
2. minor auditory deficit
3. aphasia
Input to the corticospinal tract comes from (4)
1. primary motor cortex
2. somatosensory cortex of the postcentral gyrus
3. premotor cortex
4. supplementary motor area
the corticospinal tract has direct projection from...to...
pyramidal cells in the motor areas in the cortex to the SC
what 2 tracts is the corticospinal tract divided into
1. lateral corticospinal tract
2. anterior corticospinal tract
the lateral corticospinal tract makes up what percentage of the corticospinal tract and do what in the caudal medulla
85% of fibers that decussate in the caudal medulla
what is the pathway of the lateral corticospinal tract
motor area-posterior limb of internal capsule- fibers decussate in caudal medulla (pyramidal decussation)- terminate in the ventral horn of the SC or in the brainstem reticular formation
the anterior corticospinal tract makes up what part of the corticospinal tract- do they decussate?
15-20% of corticospinal fibers that do not decussate
the anterior corticospinal tract descend to the____ and terminate on____of the _____
descend to the SC and terminate on motor or interneurons of the ventral horn
the corticobulbar tract direction projection from.....to.....
from the pyramidal cells in the motor areas of cortex to the brainstem motor nuclei (V, VII, IX, X, XI, XII motor nuclei)
what is the pathway of corticobulbar tract
motor areas- posterior limb of the internal capsule- synapse on motor nuclei in pons, medulla, and SC
corticobulbar tract has unilateral or bilateral innervation? (exception....
bilateral innervation. (exception-facial motor nucleus for the lower face)
components of upper motor neurons:
- neurons in....
-axons that....
- neurons in motor, premotor, or supplementary motor cortex
- axons that descend from these neurons and end on lower motor neurons, either directly or by way of an interneuron
what are the four components of lower motor neurons?
1. alpha motor neurons
2. ventral root fibers arising from alpha motor neurons
3. myoneural junction
4. muscle fiber
what is myoneural junction?
point where alpha efferents synapse on the muscle.
nerve fiber divides into many branches.
what constitues an upper motor neuron lesion?
any interuption of connections between the cortex and the motor nuclei in the brainstem or SC.- before synapse
UMN lesion above decussation of pyramids...what kind of symptoms (contra, ipsi)
contralateral
UMN lesion below level of decussation
ipsilateral effects
bilateral lesion of SC
involvement in all descending motor fibers below the level of the lesion
what are the five behavioral signs of UMN lesion
1. pareisis or paralysis
2. hyperreflexia
3. hypertonia
4. spasticity
5. UMN lesions invovling speech mechanism can result in spastic dysarthria
what is hyperreflexia
increased reflex
what is hypertonia
increased muscle tone
whta is spasticity
hyperreflexia and hypertonaia (bilateral lesion)
what are the three behavioral signs for LMN lesion
1. flaccid paralysis
2. atrophy
3. LMN lesions invovling muscles of speech production will result in flaccid dysarthria
what is flaccid paralysis
muscles supplied become limp because impulses cannot reach the muscle
what is atrophy
muscles eventually shrink and are replaced by fat
the basal ganglia referes to a group of...
subcortical nuclei
BG refers to those structures that cause...syndromes when damaged
extrapyramidal
what are the 5 components included in the BG- 3 real...2. not really
1. caudate nucleus
2. putamen
3. globus pallidus
4. subthalamic nucleus
5. substantia nigra
caudate nucleus+putamen=
striatum
putamen+globus pallidus=
lenticular nucleus
the substantia nigra is at the level of
midbrain
substantia nigra contains
closely packed pigmented neurons that produce dopamine
when substantia nigra is damanged, it results in
parkinsonism
what are the five major fissures and lobes of the cerebellum
1. posterolateral fissure
2. flocculonodular lobe
3. primary fissure
4. anterior lobe
5. posterior lobe
what does the posterolateral fissure do
separates the flocculonodular lobe from the body of the cerebellum
what two portions is the flocculonodular lobe broken up into
1. medial portion (nodulus)
2. lateral portion (flocculus)
what is the flocculonodular lobe involved in
the maintenance of the equilibrium and coordination of eye movement
what does the primary fissure do
separates the anterior and posterior lobe
what are the three longitudinal zones of the cerebellum
1. vermis
2. intermediate zone (paravermal zone)
3. lateral zone
what attaches the cerebellum to the brainstem
3 peduncles
what are the names of the three peduncles
1. superior cerebellar peduncle
2. middle cerebellar peduncle
3. inferior cerebellar peduncle
what does s. c. p. do
carry efferents from the cerebellum to other parts of the brain
what does mcp do
carry afferents primarily from the pontine nuclei to the cerebellum
what does icp do
carry afferents from the SC and the brainstem to the cerebellum
lesion of the vermal or paravermal zone of the cerebellum results in? primarily affects? causes?
the anterior lobe syndrom which primarily affects the legs (ataxia)- causes postural instability
lesion of hte lateral hemisphere of cerebellum results in? effects to which side of lesion?
results in the neocerebellar syndrome. effects all ipsilateral to the side of the lesion.
lesion to the flocculonodular lobe results in
abnormal eye movement and loss of equilibrium
what are the four symptoms of neocerebellar syndrome
1. hypotonia and hyporeflexia
2. ataxia
3. intention tremor
4. ataxic dysarthria
what is hypotonia
reduced muscle tone
what is hyporeflexia
reduced m. reflex
what is ataxia
lack of coordination of voluntary movements
what is decomposition of movement
errors in the timing of complex mulit-joint movment
what is dysmetria
inability to guage the range of movement- overshooting or undershooting targets
what is adiadochokinesia
impaired rapid, alternating movement. tatatata not smooth
when does intention tremor occur and when does it get worse
occurs during voluntary movement. worsens as the pt nears a target (corrective movement)
what is ataxic dysarthria
can't talk smooth. sounds drunk
what is the principle circuit of the BG loop? starting at multiple cortical areas
multiple cortical areas- basal ganglia- thalamus- one of hte cortical areas, especially the frontal lobe
the BG is also interconnected between:
- substantia nigra and striatum
- subthalamic nucleus and globus pallidus
damage to the BG results in
movement disorders( dyskinesia)
what two things to pts normally exhibit with damage to BG
-involuntary movements
- disturbances/alterations of m. tone
what are 4 examples of involuntary movement
1. tremor- shaking
2. chorea- quick, random, jerky
3. athetosis- slow riding movement
4. ballismus- wild flailing limb movement

(don't need to memorize what they are)
what are two characteristics of disturbances/alteations of m. tone
- increases tone (rigid)
- dystonia (disorder of the m. tone) (VF might open and close on their own)
what is the best known disease invovling the BG
parkinson's disease
what are the 3 symptoms of parkinson's disease
1. a resting tremor
2. rigidity
3. difficulty in initiating voluntary movement
whta are three characteristics of a resting tremor
1. present while resting
2. characteristicallly invovling the hands in a "pill-rolling" movement
3. diminishes during voluntary movement and increases druing emotional stress
what is rigidity caused by
increased tone in all muscles
what is bradykinesia
slow movement with reduced range
what is hypokinesia/akinesia
reduced/few movements (reduced blinking of eyes) (not moving arms while walking)
why is the olfactory system connected with emotion
smell triggers memory
t/f the olfactory system does not go through the thalamus before the cortex
true
olfactory receptor cells are called
chemoreceptors
olfactory receptor cells are located in
the olfactory epithelium (in the walls and roof of nasal cavity)
axons of the receptors collect into
the olfactory fila
olfactory fila end in the
olfactory bulb
projections from the olfactory bulb form the
olfactory tract
fibers of the later olfactory tract go to the (2)
- primary olfactory cortex
- amygdala
then, the olfactory info is projected to (3)
- hypothalamus
- limib structures
- thalamus
what is anosmia
loss of ability ot smell
how is anosmia diagnostically useful
in case of tumors growing on the base of the skull
what are sensorineural olfactory deficits caused by
head injuries or neurodegenerative disease
uncinate seizures? may begin with?
seizures originating in the vicinity of the uncus. may begin with an olfactory hallucination
what are the five parts of the limbic system
1. cingulate gyrus
2. parahippocampal gyri
3. hippocampus
4. amygdala
5. septal area (near uncus)
what are three parts that are very closely connected with the limbic system
1. hypothalamus
2. olfactory area
3. the tracts that link these areas (fornix- major output pathway)
where is the hippocampus found- what lobe
temporal lobe
anterior end at the? posteror end near the?
anteror end at the amygdala and posterior end near the splenium of hte corpus callosum
the hippocampus has prominent role in
learning and memory
amygdala is
a collection of nuclei lying beneath the uncus of the temporal lobe
amygdala receives
a great deal of sensory input in a highly processed form
where does the amygdala receive info from
- olfactory bulb
- frontal and temporal cortex
amygdala has output to
the septal area and hypothalamus
what is the funciton of amygdala
- influence drive-related behavior patterns via its connection to the hypothalamus
- emotions/emotional responses
electrical stimulation of amygdala often causes
fear accompanied by all its normal autonomic manifestations
bilateral damage to the hippocampus results in
anterograde amnesia for declarative memory (impaired learning and memory)
what is anteriograde memory
new memory
damage to the mammillary bodies results in
Korsakoff's Psychosis
what is K.P. caused by
chronic alcoholism
what is KP
inablity to form new memory
what is KP also called
amnestic confabulatory syndrome (make up the answer)
bilateral temporal lobe damage results in
Kluver-Bucy Syndrome
what is KBS
absence of emotional reaction, hypersexual, increased attention to sensory stimuli- no memory
what is the gray matter of the majority of the cerebral hemispher.
neocortex
neocortex makes up 95% of what
total cortical area of human
what is paleocortex
some restricted parts of the base of the telencephalon(olfactory areas)
what is archicortex
hippocampal formation
what is the neocortex made up of (2)
1. stellate cells
2. pyramidal cells
what are stellate cells
small multipolar neurons. principal interneurons of the neocortex
pyramidal cells are principal....?
output neurons.
in pyramidal cells, whawt ascend to the cortical surface
apical dendrites
dendritic spines on teh apical dendrites is the? may be invovled in?
preferential site of synapti contact maybe invovled in learning.
what are the 3 types of cortical connections
1. association fiber
2. commissureal fibers
3. projection fibers
association fibers connect fibers to/from other cortical sites....
within the same hemisphere
commissural fibers connect fibers to/from other cortical sites
in the contrallateral hemisphere
projection fibers connnect fibers to/from
subcortical sites. most descend thru the internal capsule
what are three examples of commissural fibers
1. corpus callosum
2. anterior commissure
3. posterior commissure
what is corpus callosum
the largest fiber bundle. interconnect two cerebral hemispheres.
anterior portion of corpus callosum is
genu
middle portion is
body
posterior portion is
splenium
anterior commissure interconnects...
parts of the temporal lobes (esp. middle and inferior temporal gyri)
posterior commissure if found...connects...
in midbrain, connecting pretectal areas
what are 5 examples of association fibers
1. superior longitudinal fasciculus (arcuate fasciculus)
2. superior occipitofrontal fasciculus
3. inferior occipitofrontal fasciculus
4. unicinate fasciculus
5. cingulate fasciculus (cingulum)
superior longitudinal fasciculus (arcuate fasciculus) connects..
the frontal lobe to the parietal, occipital and temporal lobes
superior occipitofrontal fasciculus connects...parrallel to ...
connects the occipital and the frontal lobe. parallel to the corpus callosum
inferior occipitofrontal fasciculus is from...
the frontal lobe, thru the temporal lobe, to the occiptial lobe
uncinate fasciculus is part of... interconnects...
part of the inferior occipitofrontal fasciculus. interconnects the orbital cortex and the anterior temporal cortex.
cingulate fasciculus (cingulum) runs... associated with...
runs within the cigulate gyrus. associated with the limbic system
in cortical mapping, map the cortex based on
anatomical differences
cortical mapping often correlates with
a specific function
what is the name of the terminology that has been used widely and it divides the cortex into how many areas
brodmanns' terminology. 46 areas
what are the four numbers of the frontal lobe
4, 6, 44, 45
#4...
precentral gyrus, paracentral lobule. aka primary motor area
#6...
superior and middle frontal gyri, precentral gyrus. aka premotor area
#44, 45
opercular and triagular parts of inferior frontal gyrus. aka broca's area (on the left)
what are the numbers of the parietal lobe
1,2,3, 5,7,39,40
#1,2,3,
postcentral gyrus, paracentral lobule. aka primary somatosensory area
#5,7
superior parietal lobule. aka somatosensory association area
#39
inferior parietal lobule. aka angular gyrus
#40
inferior parietal lobule. supramarginal gyrus
what are the numbers for occiptial lobe
17, 18, 19
17...
banks of calcarine sulcus. aka primary visual area
18, 19
surrounding 17. aka. visual association area
what are the numbers for the temporal lobe
41,42,22
41..
transverse temporal gyri. aka primary auditory area
42..
transverse temporal gyri...auditory association area.
22..
superior temporal gyrus. auditory association area. posterior portion= wernicke's area
what are the two divisions of the neocortex
1. primary cortices
2. association cortices
association cortex is divided into..
-unimodal association area
-multimodal association area
what is the unimodal association area
adjacent to a primary area. elaboration of the business of hte primary area. only visual info.
a multimodal association area is...
-inferior parietal lobule, portion of the frontal and temporal lobes.
-respond to muliple sensory modalities
- integration of various info- concerned with high-level intellectual function
primary somatosensory cortices is made up of what numbers? occupies? what type of organization?
1,2,3. occupies almost the entire postcentral gyrus. somatotopic organization
secondary somatosensory cortex is located...much of it is buried in...
located in the parietal operculum. much of it is buried in the lateral sulcus.
primary visual cortex is area...? located...? also called?
area 17. on medial surface of the occipital lobe. also called the striate cortex.
the two-part visual association cortices are area...? concerned with?
18, 19, surrounding the area...17. concerned with the movements of objects and the color of objects.
additional visual association area in the
temporal lobe
what is the area of hte primary auditory cortex...on the....what kind of organization?
area 41. on the superior surface of the temporal lobe. tonotopic organization.
what area receives infor from area 41 and MGN?
area 42
auditory association cortex is what area? which forms much of? damage may cause?
area 22. which forms much of hte superior temporal gyrus. damage may cause severe langauge problems (Wernicke's aphasia- storage of phonological form of the words.)
the inferior parietal lobule is what areas? ....association cortex?
39 and 40. heteromodal association gyrus
area 39 is
angular gyrus (storage for graphemic form of words) cannot read or write
area 40 is..
supramarginal gyrus
associationes(3)
visual, auditory, sensory
lesion to the inferior parietal lobule causes
language impairments
primary motor cortex is what area in the what? movements of? lesions:
area 4, in the precentral gyrus. movements of a discrete muscle or small groups of muscles. lesion: spastic paralysis.
premotor area is what area? anterior to the...? initiation of?
area 6. anterior to the precentral gyrus. initiation of motor behavior.
supplementary motor area is what area? (more specific) concerned with?
area 6 in the medial extension of area 6. concerned with the initiation of speech- can cause mutism
which hemisphere is language dominant?
left.
some left handed people may be...
l dominant, r dominant, bilaterally represented
what is aphasia
inability to use language following brain damage. acquired disorder.
what is the name of traditionally -defined langage areas
perisylvian language area
what are the 4 types of aphasia
1. Broca's aphasia
2. Wernicke's Aphasia
3. Conduction Aphasia
4. Global Aphasia
lesion in Broca's area is what areas?
opercular (44), triagnular (45) of the inferior frontal gyrus.
5 characteristics of Broca's Aphasia
1. non-fluent(impaired prosody)
2. relatively preserved comprehension but impaired language production
3. effortfull, slow, halting speech.
4. telegraphic speech (omission of function words)
5. often grammatical difficulty in formulating language
Lesion in Wernicke's Area is what area?
posteior part of the superior temporal gyrus (area 22)
3 characteristics of Wernicke's aphasia
1. comprehension difficulty with fluent-sounding output (normal prosody)
2. paraphasias - substitution of one word for another
3. speech is empty in content and often defective in the choice of words or the sequence.
conduction aphasia was traditionally thought to result from lesion in which fasciculus
arcuate
lesion in the arcuate fasciculus would disconnect what
wernicke's area from broca's area
conduction aphasia may involve lesion in which gyrus
supramarginal gyrus (40)
what are two characteristics of conduction aphasia
1. fluent but difficulty in repetition
2. often produce paraphasias which resemble the target word but not entirely correct
global aphasia is a large lesion involving...
has impaired...(3)
most of the perisylvian language area
- comprehension, production, and repetition
is there cognition problems with aphasia
no cognition problems, can make decisions. can't talk correctly
large lesion of the right parietal lobe leads to (2)
- difficulty with spatial orientation (on opposite side)
- hemineglect
other deficits that accompany damage to the parietal-occiptial- temporal association cortex (2)
- agnosis- the inability to recognize objects using a given sense of despite the intact sensory perception
- apraxia- oral/verbal apraxia often results from Left frontal lesion while apraxia of limb may result from left inferior parietal damage. difficulty or inability to perform motor activity voluntarily. esp. on command.
lesion of the dorsal and lateral prefrontal cortex involved in working memory leads to
problems with planning, problem-solving and attention
lesion to the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex associated with teh limbic system leads to
impulsivity, difficulty suppressing inappropriate responses and action (disinhibition)
prefrontal lobotomy leads to
decreased concentration, initiation, spontaneity, abstract reasoning, and attentions pan, impatient, disinhibited
left hemisphere is dominant for (3)
- langage
- mathematical ability
- ability to solve problems in a logical fashion
right hemisphere is superior in (4)
- musical skills
- recognition of faces
- visual/spacial processing
- there is some rudimentary language ability in teh right hemisphere

*wholistic processing
disconnection syndromes leads to
alexia without agraphia (pure word deafness)
what is alexia without agraphia
difficulty reading without writing difficulty
alexia without agraphia is almost always accompanied by
right homonymous hemianopsia (rt. visual field loss)
stroke in the Left PCA can lead to
destruction of the left visual cortex and the splenium of the corpus callosum
in alexia without agraphia...left language area is cut off from
all visual input
does a person with alexia without agraphia have verbal and written langauge
yes
hwo is the person's angular gyrus
is intact but doesn't get any input