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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is the central nervous system composed of
the brain and the spinal cord
where does the central nervous system lie within
the skull and the vertebrae
what does the CNS include
cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem and spinal cord
is the CNS composed of tracts and nuclei or ganglia and nerves
tracts and nuclei
what is the nuclei of the CNS
group of cell bodies. cell bodies form gray matter in cortex.
where is the gray matter in cortex
outside layer of the brain
what is the tracts of the CNS
fibers. primarily axons. fibers form white matter. inside of the brain. (highways-used to convey information from one place to another)
what is the peripheral nervous system made up of
everything except for the brain and spinal cord
what is the PNS composed of
ganglia and nerves
what is ganglia
groups of cell bodies outside the CNS
what is nerves (in the PNS)
spinal and cranial nerves
what can the PNS be divided into
autonomic NS and somatic NS
what is the autonomic NS
regulation of internal body function (e.g. glands) breathing, blood pressure....
what is somatic NS
enables us to perceive sensory stimuli and carry on volition motor activity. (UNDER VOLUNTARY CONTROL)
what are the three subdivisions of the brain
the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem
what is the cerebrum subdivided into
the cerbral hemispheres and the diencephalon
what is the diencephalon
it is interposed between the cerebral hemispheres and hte brainstem. it is mostly hidden from view unless you cut the brain.
based on location what are the three divisions of the brain
forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain.
what is included in the forebrain
cerebral hemispheres, deep cerebral nuclei and diencephalon
what is included in the midbrain
part of the brain stem
what is included in the hindbrain
pons and medulla. and cerebellum
list the three derms
ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm
what is the ectoderm
(outer) the skin and brain
what is the mesoderm
(middle) connective tissue, muscles, bone, circulatory system
what is the endoderm
(inner) inner tubes (gastrointestinal tracts, the lungs.
what is the neural ectoderm
the neural plate
-the nerual tube and neural crest
what are the steps of primary neurulation
1. neural plate formed at week 3 of embryonic development. the neural plate is formed by the band of ectoderm thickening.
2. the neral plate begins to fold inward, forming the neral groove. there is a neral fold on each side of the groove
3. at the end of week 3, the neral folds being to fuse, forming the neural tube.
during embryogenesis, what happens as the neural tube closes
it separates from the ectodermal surface.
what does the neural tube form
the cns
during fusion, groups of cells from the crest of each neural fold separates from the neural tube forming the
the cavity in the neral tube becomes the
ventricular system of the brain
what happens during the 4th week of embryonic development
the caudal part of hte neral tube differentiates into two plates
what is the caudal part of the neural tube comprised of
spinal cord and brainstem
sulculs limitans
divides the lateral wall of hte neural tube into two halves.
what are the two halves of the wall of the neural tube
1. dorsal half forms an alar plate which becomes the cells concerned with sensory processing( in the brain)
2. ventral half forms the basal plate which becomes motor neurons (moving something)
in the adult spinal cord, the central gray matter can be divided into what two parts
1. an anterior horn which contains the cell bodies of motor neurons
2. a posterior horn which contains the sensory neurons
what appears during the fourth week?
three primary vesicles (bulges)
list the three primary vesicles and say where they are located
1. Prosencephalon:forebrain->cerbrum
2. Mesencephalon: midbrain->midbrain
3. Rhombencephalon: hindbrain-> brainstem and cerbellum
what are the two flexures that divide these vesicles
1. cephalic flexure between the prosencephalon and the mesencephalon
2. cerrical flexure between the rhombencephalon and the spinal cord
what happens with the vescicles during the 5th week?
3 vesicles turns into 5 vesicles
list the five vesicles found during the fifth week
prosencephalon divides into
1. Telencephalon->cerebral hemispheres
2. Diencephalon-> thalamus, hypothalamus
3. mesencephalon remains undivided

Rhombencephalon divides into
4. Metencephalon-> pons, cerebellum
5. Myelencephalon-> medulla
what is the new flexure found in the fifth week. and where is it found
Pontine flexure- divides the rhombencephalon into two parts
in the brainstem: in the process of forming the fourth ventricle, what happens to the neural tube
the walls of the neural tube spread apart (flatten out)
what happens to the alar and basal plates
they come to lie in the floor of the fourth ventricle.
where are the sensory nuclei located in the brainstem
located laterally (these move out)
where are the motor nuclei located in the brainstem
located medially (these don't move)
in the development of the cerebrum and the cerebellum, what happens to the telecephalon
it grows very fast and covers the diencephalon. you cannot see the diencephalon from the side anymore)
what is insula
it is the telecephalic tissue overlying the fusion between telecephalon and diencephalon. it becomes hidden from view later in the development
what happens during the second month to the alar plate
hte lateral parts of the alar plate in the brainstem thickens to form the rhombic lips-> becomes to cerebellum which has a lot to do with sensory
what forms in the cavity of the neural tube?
the ventricular system of the adult brain
list the 4 ventricles and say in which vesicle they are located

also label the small tube
-two lateral ventricles: in the telencephalon(one in each hemisphere)
-the third ventricle: in diencephalon
-the fourth ventricle: in metencephalon and myelencephalon (in pons and medulla)
central canal (very small tube): in spinal cord ( in the middle of the gray matter