• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/105

Click to flip

105 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
During segment rearrangement random nucleotides are added to generate tremendous antigenic diversity by what enzyme?
TdT enzyme- responsible for N nucleotide additions
With no RAG (recombination activation gene) you'll have what?
you'll have NO mature B and T cells. RAG is aka VDJ Recombinase
An induced Common progenitor lymphoid cell with Notch-1, GATA-3 will produce what?
Pro T cells in the thymus
An induced Common Progenitor Lymphoid cell (CLP cells) with EBF, EF2A and Pax-5 will produce what?
Pro- B cells in the bone marrow
Immunoglobulins can become soluble factors. T or F?
TRUE!!!! TCR can NOT.
How does ProB differ from PreB?
Pro B does not have a receptor and Pre B does. Pre B expresses heavy chain
Allelic exclusion, what is it?
one H chain allele is rearranged and expressed while the other remains unrearranged
What expresses surface markers CD19 and CD10?
Pro B cell
When do you express cytoplasmic u in B cell development?
Pre-B
What is due to failure of B cells to mature?
XLA
What causes XLA to occur?
Failure caused by a mutation/deletion in the gene for Bruton tyrosine
kinase (Btk)
What is involved in transduction of signals from the preBCR required for survival, differentiation and proliferation of pre-B cells?
Btk
An induced Common progenitor lymphoid cell with Notch-1, GATA-3 will produce what?
Pro T cells in the thymus
An induced Common Progenitor Lymphoid cell (CLP cells) with EBF, EF2A and Pax-5 will produce what?
Pro- B cells in the bone marrow
Immunoglobulins can become soluble factors. T or F?
TRUE!!!! TCR can NOT.
How does ProB differ from PreB?
Pro B does not have a receptor and Pre B does. Pre B expresses heavy chain
Allelic exclusion, what is it?
one H chain allele is rearranged and expressed while the other remains unrearranged
An induced Common progenitor lymphoid cell with Notch-1, GATA-3 will produce what?
Pro T cells in the thymus
What expresses surface markers CD19 and CD10?
Pro B cell
An induced Common Progenitor Lymphoid cell (CLP cells) with EBF, EF2A and Pax-5 will produce what?
Pro- B cells in the bone marrow
When do you express cytoplasmic u in B cell development?
Pre-B
Immunoglobulins can become soluble factors. T or F?
TRUE!!!! TCR can NOT.
How does ProB differ from PreB?
Pro B does not have a receptor and Pre B does. Pre B expresses heavy chain
What is due to failure of B cells to mature?
XLA
Allelic exclusion, what is it?
one H chain allele is rearranged and expressed while the other remains unrearranged
What causes XLA to occur?
Failure caused by a mutation/deletion in the gene for Bruton tyrosine
kinase (Btk)
What expresses surface markers CD19 and CD10?
Pro B cell
What is involved in transduction of signals from the preBCR required for survival, differentiation and proliferation of pre-B cells?
Btk
When do you express cytoplasmic u in B cell development?
Pre-B
What is due to failure of B cells to mature?
XLA
What causes XLA to occur?
Failure caused by a mutation/deletion in the gene for Bruton tyrosine
kinase (Btk)
What is involved in transduction of signals from the preBCR required for survival, differentiation and proliferation of pre-B cells?
Btk
A patient presents with :
recurrent bacterial infections-
> low or undetectable serum Ig
> reduced or absent numbers of B cells (blood and periphery);
T cell numbers unaffected
> absence of lymph node germinal centers
> lack of plasma cells in tissues
What do you suspect?
XLA
What is a choice of therapy for a patient with XLA?
passive immunity via periodic injections of pooled gamma
globulin preparations.
What marker is specific for B cells?
B220
When in B cell development do you have only a Membrane IgM?
Immature B cell
When in B cell development do you have both Membrane IgM and IgD?
Mature B cell
When do you have B220lo in B cell developement?
Pre B cell
What is the hallmark of Pre B cells?
cytoplasmic u
What is the process by which developing lymphocytes that express antigen receptors specific for self antigens are eliminated, thereby contributing to the maintainence of self tolerance?
Negative Selection
What is a form of self-tolerance that is induced in generative lymphoid organs as a consequence of immature self-reactive lymphocytes recognizing antigens leading to their death or inactivation?
Central tolerance
What prevents the emergence of lymphocytes with high affinity receptors for ubiquitous self antigens that are present in the bone marrow or thymus?
Central tolerance
Some self-Ags induce activation of _______________genes which rearrange the L chain DNA to generate a new L chain with new specificity.
RAG1/RAG2 genes
What is a process by which some immature B cells that recognize self antigens in the bone marrow may be induced to change their immunoglobulin (Ig) specificities?
Receptor Editing
What involves reactivation of RAG genes, additional light cahin VJ recombinations, and production of a new Ig light chain?
Receptor Editing
What B cells are self-sustained?
B1-B cells from Fetal Liver
What type of B cells do you find in lymph nodes?
Follicular B2-B cells
What type of B cells do you find in the spleen?
Marginal Zone B2-B cells
What B2-B cell expresses IgM and IgD?
Follicular B2-B cells in lymph node
What B2-B cell expresses IgM and CD21/CR2?
Marginal Zone B2-B cells in Spleen
B1-B cells express what? Where do you find B1-B cells?
IgM and CD5, find in the GUT
What are Immunoreceptor Tyrosine-based Activation Motifs and what is their role?
ITAMs and they are the sites for intracellular signalling
What are the cytoplasmic chains of the TCR?
Zeta chains
What are a subset of developing T cells in the thymus that do not express either CD4 or CD8?
Double negative Thymocytes, PRO-T cells!!!!!!!!!!
Pro T cells express what?
CD25+ (IL2) and are only expressed on activated T lymphocytes
What are cells that express CD25+ and never turn it off?
Treg cells (aka regulatory cells)
What has the highest affinity for self antigens among T cells?
Treg cells
What is the effector function of Treg cells?
Immunosuppression
Once a cell becomes a Pre-T cell what does it do?
Rearranges Beta chain
What are a subset of developing T cells in the thymus that express both CD4 and CD8?
Double Positive, after Pre-T cell and during this time the alpha chain is rearranged as well.
Why can Double Positve cells bind to antigen but they can't signal?
because low CD3. they have the receptors but can't signal yet. receptors useful for positive selection
What is it called when developing T cells whose antigen receptors bind to self MHC are rescued from cell death but those who do not recognize self MHC undergo apoptosis?
Positive selection
What ensures that mature T cells are self-MHC restricted?
Positive Selection
What cells undergo Positive Selection?
Double Positive cells of the developing T lymphocytes
Where do Positive Selection take place?
Cortex of Thymus
What is a maturing T cell precursor in the thymus that expresses CD4 or CD8 molecules but not both?
Single Positive Thymocyte
Single Positive Thymocytes are found mainly where?
in the medulla of the thymus
What developing T cells undergo Negative Selection?
Single Positive Thymocytes
What developing T cell expresses CD4 or CD8 and CD3hi?
Single Positive T cell
What developing T cell expresses CD4, CD8 and CD3lo?
Double Positive T cell
Where does activation and proliferation of T cells occur?
in the Periphery
What will happen when TCR has low affinity for
Peptide-MHC complex?
survival of T cell
What is a gene expressed by thymic epithelial cells and encodes for every self antigen in your body?
AIRE- autoimmune regulator gene
Where do you have activation of Naive T cells and development of Effector T cells?
lymph node
Where do you have activation of Effector T cells and eradication of microbes?
site of infection
What can recognize conformational and linear epitopes?
Immunoglobins
What recognizes antigens presented on APC cells?
TCRs
What type of epitope determinant will Ig bind to determinant in both native and denatured proteins?
Linear Epitope
What Ig has a hydrophobic transmembrane region?
Membrane Ig
What has a u heavy chain C region?
Membrane IgM
What has a gamma heavy chain C region?
Membrane IgG
What antibody chain is made up of one V domain and one C domain?
Light chain
What antibody chain is made up of a V domain and 3-4 C domains?
Heavy chain
What consists of 2 layers of B-pleated sheets held together by a disulfide bridge?
Ig domain
Each variable region contains what?
hypervariable regions, aka CDRs
What hypervariable region has the greatest variability?
CDR3s
What contains a whole light chain attached to the V and first C domain of a heavy chain?
Fab- portion of antibody required for antigen recognition
What part of the Immunoglobin is responsible for most of the biologic activity and effector functions of the antibodies?
Fc regions
What enables Fab regions to simutaneously bind to antigen epitopes that are seperated from one another by varying distances?
Hinge region of antibody
Antibodies that contain different heavy chains are known as what?
Isotypes (IgM, IgD, IgG, IgA, IgE)
Complement binding site on what immunoglobins activates complement pathways?
IgM and IgD
What determines whether or not a Immunoglobin will be a Secreted IgM or Mebrane IgM?
where you add the poly A tail.
Poly A tail added AFTER transmembrane and cytoplasmic region then Membrane IgM. added BEFORE then secreted IgM
Plasma cell selects from 300 variable genes, 50 diveristy genes, 4 joiner genes, and 8 constant genes. What is it forming?
Heavy Chain. you know this because a D gene is involved.
What happens first, VDJ joinging or D-J joining?
D-J joining of Germinline DNA THEN VDJ joining during Rearranging DNA
What is NOT always expressed on APC and only comes on when dendritic cell is infected or becomes exposed to pathogen?
secondary signal (B7)
WHat costimulatory signal is always expressed on T cell?
CD28
What activate a costimulator of an APC?
Innate immune response to a microbe
What gives TCR increased receptor diveristy?
Tdt and VDJ recombinase (RAG genes)
If no RAG gene then what would T and B cells be like?
stuck in Pre-T and Pre-B phase. you'll have NO mature B and T cells
What results in the elimination of cells that can recognize self Ags with high affinity?
Central tolerance of B and T cells
What is is the process whereby CD4CD8-double positive T cells become either CD4 or CD8 T cells through MHC-peptide-TCR interactions?
Positive Selection of T lymphocytes
What is mediated by professional APC within the thymus and involves induction of apoptosis signals in T cells possessing TCR with high affinity for self Ags.
T cell negative selection
What represent highly variable regions within the epitope binding domains of Ag receptors which allow for recognition of countless foreign Ags?
CDRs
What can be secreted or surface bound and have the capacity to flex in response to cell surface Ags?
Antibodies
During ____________ random nucleotides are added to generate tremendous antigenic diversity by the TdT enzyme.
segment rearrangement