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81 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
percent of homicides by strangers
13
percent of homicides by those with prior relationships
60
type of serial killer that hears voices and has visions that are the basis for the compulsion to murder
visonary serial killers
kill for financial or material gain
comfort serial killers / profit-driven killers
murder for the pleasure of killing
hedonistic
operate from some position of power over others
power seekers
involve sadism or dominance
thrill-motivated killers
generally have a reformist or visionary orientation
mission-oriented killers
motivated by profit or protection
expedience-directed killers
commit murders to mask other crimes
protection-oriented killers
gender, usually murders strangers
male
gender, usually murders people known to them
females
kills spouses and usually for economic profit
black widow
kills those in her care or who rely on her from some form of medical attention or similar support
angel of death
UCR rape report
64 out of every 100,000
NCVS rape report
200 out of every 100,000
common law of rape did not:
recognize men as victims
recognize spousal rape
recognize vaginal rape with anything but a penis
allow for various means by which force could occur
rape shield laws were intended to:
protect rape victims by ensuring that defendants did not introduce irrelevant facts about the victim's sexual past into evidence
planning and robbery
little planning for personal, much for institutional
offense specialization for property crime
low, offenders do a little bit of everything
taking from a structure with unlawful entry
burglary
threaten someone or use force to obtain something
robbery
take something without trespassing
larceny
commercial burglary occurs when
night time when closed
residential burglary occurs when
day time when ppl at work
overturning all laws against something
legalization
removing criminal penalties from something
decriminalizing
burglary targets whom?
strangers mostly, family when out of town, family for revenge
phases of property crime
breakin- first ten years
stable- next ten years, commited to the life style, no other alternatives
burnout-commitment level begins to drop
largest crime by money
larceny
gang motivated violence
violent crime is direct result of gang activity
gang affiliated violence
individual gang members are involved in crime but not as a purposeful result of gang activity
association of gangs and homicide: two types
gang motivated and gang affiliated
homicide when victim and offender know each other
primary homicide
homicide when victim and offender do not know each other
non-primary homicide
crime results from interpersonal hostility
expressive crimes
involves some degree of premeditation by the offender and are less likely to be precipitated
instrumental crimes
Robbery that occurs on the highway or street or in a public place (and which is often referred to as “mugging”) and robbery that occurs in residences
personal robbery
Robbery that occurs in commercial settings, such as convenience stores, gas stations, and banks
institutional robbery
is robbery common on mass transit
no robbery is rare
transportation: who at greatest risk?
taxicab drivers
primary motive for robbery
fast cash, little planning
assualt on a stranger
very rare
majority of robbery offenders are
generalists
majority of assualt victims
know their attacker, often in a familial or an intimate relationship
Violence as result of resistance to / failure of other forms of control
intimate-partner assault
UCR definition of rape
carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will
NCVS definition of rape
Forced sexual intercourse including both psychological coercion as well as physical force.”
Includes vaginal, anal, and oral sex
Includes use of foreign object
Includes attempted rape, male and female victims, and both heterosexual and homosexual rape
Attempted rape includes verbal threats of rape
greatest loss to retailers
employee theft
shoplifting primarily committed by:
men
illicit market for crack drove down the street value of stolen property,
cash was enhanced, burglary rates decreased and robbery increased
target selection for commercial burglary
night time mostly and usually retail stores
target selection for residential burglary
based on knowledge of occupants, not usually family or close friends, avoid occupied homes, avoid complex security systems, most in day time
shoplifters that sell the items, low percent of total
boosters
shoplifters that use items for personal use, higher percent
snitches
shoplifters with little planning that feel remorse
impulsive
shoplifters that do it for peer pressure, more frequent
occasional
smallest percent of shoplifters, psych problems
episodic
largest percent of shoplifters, maximized profit and minimized risk, CBA (cost benefit analysis)
amateur
shoplifters daily, skilled, big tickets, resale
semiprofessional
juveniles who commit spur of the moment burglaries with others, and are dissuaded by protective devices
low-level burglars
Older individuals who drift in and out of burglary, consider risk, and commonly use alcohol and drugs
middle-range burglars
professionals who work in organized groups and make a good living with their proceeds
high-level burglars
receives stolen property through a front like a pawn shop
professional receivers
takes stolen goods in payment, usually a professional in some field
avocational receivers
receive stolen property for their own use
amateur receivers
most expensive type of crime
white collar
crimes committed to benefit a corporation
organizational occupational crime
crimes by officials through the exercise of their state-based power
state authority occupational crime
crime by professionals in their capacity as professionals
professional occupational crime
crime by individuals as individuals
individual occupational crime
violations of the law that damage some protected or otherwise significant aspect of the natural environment
environmental corporate crime
causes of white collar crime
same as other crimes: self interest, pursuit of pleasure, avoidance of pain
theories applicable to the causes of white collar crime
strain theory, subcultural theories, control theory
a violation of a criminal statute either by a corportate entity or by its executives, employees, or agents acting on behalf of the corporation, partnership, or other form of business entity
corporate crime
examples of corporate crime
prior knowledge of malfunctions in products, price fixing, insider securities trading
four areas of reform for corporate crime
ethical, enforcement, structural, political
ethical corporate reform
working to establish stronger and more persuasive codes of business ethics
enforcement corporate reform
white collar criminals must be severly punished and there should be better funding for enforcement
structural corporate reform
basic changes in corporate structures to make crime more difficult to commit
political corporate reform
eliminating campaign contributions from corporations and businesses but also increasing levels of fairness in government grants purchases and contracts