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103 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
human conduct in violation of the criminal laws of a state, the federal government, or a local jurisdiction that has the power to make such laws
crime
make illegal
criminalize
human activity that violates social norms
deviant behavior
various forms of behavior are criminalized upon agreement from members of society
consensus perspective
this perspective good in homogeneous societies
consensus perspective
behaviors are typically criminalized through a political process only after debate over the appropriate course of action
pluralist perspective
an interdisciplinary profession built around the scientific study of crime and criminal behavior, including their manifestations, causes, legal aspects, and control
criminology
one who studies crime, criminals, and criminal behavior
criminologist
a specialist in the collection and examination of the physical evidence of crime
criminalist
a theory that attempts to explain all or most forms of criminal conduct through a single overarching approach
general theory
theory that explains crime by merging concepts from different sources
integrated theory
specialist in examining the evidence of a crime
criminalist
one who studies crime, criminals, and criminal behavior
criminologist
application of the ciminal law and study of the components of the justice system
criminal justice
members of society agree it should be illegal
consensus perspective
behaviors are typically criminalized througha political process only after debate over the appropriate course of action
pluralist perspective
one that attempts to explain all or most forms of criminal conduct through a single overarching approach
general theory
exlains crime by merging concepts from different sources
integrated theory
crime defined as: Problem behavior, especially human activity that contravenes the criminal law and results in difficulties in living within a framework of generally acceptable social arrangements
psychological perspective
crime defined as: Human conduct in violation of the criminal laws of a state, the federal government, or the local jurisdiction that has the power to make such laws
legalistic perspective
crime defined as: The result of criteria that have been built into the law by powerful groups and are then used to label selected undesirable forms of behavior as illegal
political perspective
crime defined as: An antisocial act of such a nature that its repression is necessary or is supposed to be necessary to the preservation of the existing system of society
sociological perspective
shortcoming of sociological perspective
Shortcoming:
It suffers from wanting to criminalize activities that cause only indirect harm.
shortcoming of political perspective
Restricted to understanding crime through political processes, which limits inquiry into human behavior
shortcoming of legalistic perspective
Yields “moral high ground” to the powerful

Insistence that nature of crime cannot be separated from nature of law

No recognition that formal law did not always exist
shortcoming of psychological perspective
Does not fully acknowledge structural causes of criminal activity and crime definitions
Human activity that violates social norms
deviant behavior
violation of a set of rules
crime
speeding vs. adultery
crime vs. deviance
Macro analysis
Crime is a manifestation of social problems

Public health model
Government funded initiatives
social problems
Micro analysis
Crime is an individual responsibility
Rational choice theory
Social programs do little to solve the problem
Punishment, rehabilitation, & control
social responsibility
Released by Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
Crime in the United States
UCR
UCR stands for
Uniform crime report
collected by the FBI, eventually will replace UCR
National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS)
Released by Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS)
Criminal Victimization in the United States
National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)
four reasons for not reporting crime
fear of perpetrator
shame, carries over form cultural victim-blaming notions
fears of not being believed
fear of further participation in the justice system
an arrest has been made or the perpetrator is known but an arrest is not possible
cleared crime
how data is collected for UCR
through police reports
how data is collected for NCVS
through random selection interview
crime did what in the early 1940s
decreased sharply because of WWI
crim did what from 1960s to 1990s, and why??
dramatic increase, baby boomers in crime prone age, increase in crime reporting, normlessness of 1960s
crime from 1991 to 2003, and why
dramatic decrease, baby boomers aging out
willful killing of one human being by another
homicide
unlawful homicide
murder
planned murder
first degree murder
true crime of passion
second degree murder
negligent homicide; no malice or intent
third degree murder
an offender who commits a crime during which someone dies
felony murder...person can be found guilty of first degree murder even with no intent
unlawful taking of property that is in the immediate possession of another by force or threat of force or violence and/or by putting the victim in fear
robbery
robbery in public, usually in the street
highway (street) robbery
unarmed offender uses brute force to rob someone
strong armed robbery
unlawful attack by one person upon another for the purpose of inflicting severe or aggravated bodily injury
aggravated assault
attack without a weapon resulting eitehr in minor injury or undetermined injury requiring less than two days of hospitalization
simple assault(NCVS)

any injury: aggravated assault per UCR
unlawful entry of a structure to commit a felony or a theft; use of force is not required
burglary
unlawful taking or attempted taking, carrying, leading, or riding away of property, other than a motor vehicle, from the possession of another person
larceny
theft or attempted theft of a motor vehicle
motor vehicle theft
stealing a car while its occupied
carjacking
burning something
arsen
this persepctive on crime is better in a homogeneous society.
consensus perspective
for Part I offenses, the crimes are counted when?
anytime a crime is reported to the police
for Part II offenses, the crimes are counted when?
only when an arrest was made
violent crime
robbery, rape, murder, aggravated assault
property crime
burglary, larceny/theft, motor vehicle theft, arson
an alternative explanation
confounding effects
an outside reason for a correlation other than the one shown
confounding effects
rate of crime calculated on the basis of crimes that would likely be committed by those who are in prison or who are otherwise incapacitated by the justice system
latent crime rate
NIBRS summary or incident based?
incident based, reports all crimes committed during one incident
UCR summary or incident based?
summary based, only counts the most serious--heirarchy rule
statistics that specify how likely findings are to be true for other populations or in other locales
inferential statistics
statistics that summarize or highlight the relationships within data that have been gathered
descriptive statistics
the certainty that experimental interventions caused the changes observed in the study group
internal validity
the ability of researchers to generalize the research findings to other settings
external validity
threats to internal validity
history-some real like event related to experiment occurs during course of experiment
maturation-processes occuring over time, such as aging
testing effect-had this test previously
intrumentation-using different measures to avoid the test effect
regression to the mean-extreme scores, move closer to mean over time
selection bias-must be sure experimental and control groups are equal
experimental mortality-losing people
diffusion of stimulus-subjects talking to each other about the experiment
rivalry/demoralization-competitiveness with group
threats to external validity
reactive effects of testing- people figure out what you're asking and tell you waht you want to hear
self-selection--certain groups volunteer, such as the poor
reactive effects of experimental arrangements-know you're being tested so you act differently
multiple-treatment interference- in other studies/classes at the same time
scientific inquiry that is designed and carried out for practical application
applied research
undertaken simply for the sake of advancing scientific knowledge
pure research
characterized by direct and original investigation
primary research
new evaluations of existing information that has already been collected by other researchers
secondary research
series of interrelated propositions that attempt to describe, explain, predict, and ultimately control some class of events
theory
an explanation that accounts for a set of facts and that can be tested by further investigation
hypothesis
research is done and explained to form these
theories
stages of research
define your question
define concepts you are studying
choose a method
how will you measure things?
who and how will you sample?
how will you collect data?
how will you analyze the data
how will you report your findings
groups 1 and 2 are exp and control, 3 does not have pretest, 4 is only posttested
solomon four group design
solomon four group design
groups 1 and 2 are exp and control, 3 does not have pretest, 4 is only posttested
single group of subjects is measured on a variable following experimental stimuli
one-shot case study
adds a pretest for the group, no control
one-group pretest-posttest design
includes experimental and control group, no pretest
static-group comparison
like the static group comparison but the static is not randomly selected here
posttest-only control group design
how does proper randomization control threats to internal validity, especially the testing effect?
no bias on post test because there is no pre test
five types of data collection
surveys, case studies, participant observation, self-reporting, and secondary analysis
new evaluations of existing information, which had been collected by other researchers
secondary analysis
the researcher doesnt try to influence behavior or direction of the group
observer
the researcher is indestinguishable from all other members of the group
participant
provide reseachers with confidence that their results are in fact, and not the result of sampling error
tests of significance
no names are disclosed
anonymity
all responses are confidential
confidentiality
any potential harm must be disclosed at outset
no harm to participants, an ethical issue
ethical issues
voluntary participation, informed consent, no harm to participants, anonymity and confidentiality, deception only when necessary
subjects are aware of the costs/benefits of participating
informed consent
measures of central tendency
mean, median, mode
when the same conditions exist, the same results can be expected to follow
replicability
a scientific principle that requires that independent observers see the same thing under the same circumstances for observations to be regarded as valid
intersubjectivity or inter-rater reliability
variance and SD, how spread out the data is
dispersion