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57 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the most cranial aspect of the upper forelimb?
Point of the shoulder
What palpable process separates the lateral surface of the scapula?
Spine of the scapula
What is palpable distal end of the spine of the scapula just proximal to the point of the shoulder?
Acromion
How is the joint distal to the shoulder located?
By flexing and extending it-elbow
What is the palable large process proximal and caudal to the elbow joint?
Olecrannon= point of the elbow
How is the styloid process of the radius palpated?
Flex antebrachiocarpal joint and feel distal end of radius on medial side
What is the projection of the palmar and lateral side of the carpus?
Accessory carpal bone
What are the pads over the digital joints?
digital pads
What can the cat's clavicle be mistaken for in a lateral radiograph?
Bone in the esophagus
What is the location of most fractures of the humerus?
Shaft
What hinders retraction of the median nerve and brachial artery during surgery in the cat?
They pass through the supracondylar foramen.
What can cause premature closure of the growth plate?
Injury to physis (growth plate)
What is the "quick" that bleeds if a horny claw is cut too short
Artery in the dermis over ungual process
How is cutting the quick prevented when trimming pigmented and unpigmented claws?
Unpigmented:don't cut into visible pink cone;
pigmented: shave off layers until white area reached(just distal to quick) then use 1st to judge the rest
What must be removed in a declaw to prevent regrowth?
Ungual crest
How is a declaw operation performed basically?
Guillotine nail clipper;blade in dorsal- distal interphalangeal joint and other distal to digital pad
What is a sequestrum?
Piece of dead bone
What is osteochondrosis?
Disturbance of endochondral ossification affecting articular cartilage
List 3 sites of osteochondrosis in the dog?
1#)head of the humerus, trochlea of the humerus, medial coronoid process of the ulna, medial trochlea of talus, lateral condyle of the femur.
What is an unhealed fracture, having all the structures of a synovial joint?
False joint
What is an articular separation called?
luxation, subluxation or dislocation
What is the most common site of osteochondrosis?
Shoulder- head of the humerus
What helps prevent luxation of the elbow of the dog?
anconeal process in the olecrannon fossa
Why is lateral luxation more likely in the dog's elbow?
lateral epicondyle is smaller than medial epicondyle
Define ununited anconeal process.
Failure of anconeal process to unite with ulna after five months of age.
What can cause degeneration of the elbow joint?
Ununited anconeal process and fragmented medial coronoid process
When does the anconeal process unite in German Shepherds?
By five months
What can fragmented medial coronoid process cause?
Degeneration of the elbow joint.
What is the lateral coronoid of the ulna used to determine in lateral radiographs?
subluxation of the elbow
What muscle is incised to open the elbow joint laterally?
Anconeus
Where are subcutaneous injections made?
Through skin into superficial fascia
How can pus move from one area to another?
Along fascial planes
How can a neck infection spread to the thorax?
Migrate down fascial planes to the thorax.
How do you determine unilateral atrophy of shoulder muscles?
Compare muscles on both sides by palpation.
How do dogs do on three limbs?
Most adapt well, larger the animal the harder.
Of what clinical importance are the superficial veins of the shoulder region
Must be retracted or ligated in surgical approaches to shoulder.
What is the easiest vein to use for venipuncture?
Cephalic vein
Where is venipuncture usually performed on the cephalic vein?
In the forearm above the carpus; start distally so that if you "flub" you can move up the arm
To puncture the external jugular vein, first go through the ----- parallel to the vein and then angle and insert the needle gently into the vein.
Skin
Why can't a tourniquet be effectively used in the middle of the antebrachium?
Caudal interosseous is protected from occlusion by deep position between bones
How is the superifical cervical lymph node palpated in a dog?
Retract arm and palpate ln. deep to brachiocephalicus and cranial to supraspinatus mm., just dorsal to level of acromion
How is the accessory axillary lymph node palpated if it is present?
Lay hand flat on thorax caudal to arm and stroke caudally
Why can a broken neck result in respiratory paralysis?
Phrenic nerve to diaphragm arises from brachial plexus
What is the panniculus (cutaneous trunci) response?
Contraction of cutaneous trunci muscle in response to a pin prick of trunk
What is the reflex arch for the panniculus response?
Sensation from skin of trunk over thoracic and lumbar spinal nn. to spinal cord, up cord to lateral thoracic n., out to cutaneous trunci m.
Clinically what is the panniculus response used to evaluate?
Level of thoracic spinal cord damage
What are the signs of complete avulsion of the brachial plexus?
Complete paralysis, extended flaccid limb, unable to support weight and dragging dorsum of paw.
Does sensation to the caudolateral aspect of the arm rule out complete brachial plexus avulsion? Why?
No, b/c are innervated by the intercostobrachialis nn. which doesn't arise from the brachial plexus
What is Sweeney?
Atrophy of supraspinatus and infraspinatus mm.= prominent scapular spine (suprascapular n. damage)
What is the common and clinically significant nerve problem of the forelimb?
Radial nerve paralysis
What are the two types of radial nerve injury
High and low radial nerve injury
Where are high and low radial nerve injuries located?
High:before triceps,
low: after triceps
What are signs of high radial nerve paralysis?
Inability to bear weight on limb, dropped elbow and knuckling over on digits
To what common condition is low radial nerve paralysis a sequela?
Fracture of the humerus
What are two ways to tell if a nerve is damaged?
Loss of skin sensation and loss of motor innervation (loss of function or spongy feel to muscles)
What sensory loss is diagnostic for radial nerve injury?
Loss of sensation on dorsal manus
How is loss of sensory neurons determined?
Analgesia (loss of sensation)