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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are common IV sites for horses?
Jugular vein
(less common: cephalic, femoral, or lateral thoracic veins)
Common IV sites for cows?
Jugular or tail veins
(less common: "milk" vein)
Common IV sites for pigs?
Cranial vena cava, auricular veins, tail vein
(less common: jugular, cephalic or lateral thoracic veins)
Common IV sites for sheep and goats?
Jugular vein
Common IV site for camelid?
Right jugular vein
What are the 4 sites for equine IM injections?
Neck triangle
Gluteal muscles Semimembranous or semitendinosus
Pectoral muscles
What are the borders for the neck triangle?
Nuchal ligament, cervical vertebrae, and scapula (cranial border)
What are the 2 sites for bovine IM/SQ injections?
Neck triangle
Tail head (SQ only!)
What are the sites for camelid IM/SQ injections?
Neck triangle
Axillary region (SQ only!)
How many grams in a milliliter?
1 (1g = 1mL)
Turn ratios to %
How to convert product percentage strength to mg/ml:
Multiply by 10
ex. 4% = 40mg/mL
How long do heifer calf stay in hutch?
60-90 days
What can feeding grain only cause?
Rumen acidosis
How much do cows eat?
80-100 lbs per day (50-60 lbs dry matter basis)
What do bands around the legs indicate?
The cows that should not be milked
What do the different colored chalk on tailheads indicate?
Orange = cow in estrus
Green = cow is pregnant
None = ready to be bred
Whats the average 1st time calving age?
24 months
What determines 1st estrus in mammals?
% mature BW
How much protein should cows get?
10-18% DM basis
What is dried chicken manure fed for?
As a nitrogen source
but roughage needs to be fed with it as cellulose
What is cottonseed fed for?
As fat source
Why should you be careful when feeding whole cottonseed?
Gossypol in cottonseed causes cardiac problems and decreased fertility
What is Brewer's grain fed for?
As a carb. source
What can too much carbs. cause?
Acidosis, but can be prevented if combined with roughage
What are almond hulls used for?
As a source of oils and fiber
(high energy source)
Why is steam cracked/rolled corn steamed and cracked?
Cracked to make it more digestible.
Steamed to make it less dusty.
Why are pellets fed?
What is the ration per cow?
To balance out minerals and proteins. Pellet ration is 2 lbs. per cow per day
What determines when calf is weaned?
Rumen development
What makes rumen grow faster?
Grain (but roughage helps keep it healthy)
How many times are cows milked per day?
2-3 times per day
Why is milk refrigerated at 42C within 2 hours of milking?
to control bacterial growth
Most of the milk goes to what kind of production?
How much IgG does a newborn calf need?
Atleast 100g
By law, how long after calving do producers have to wait before reintroducing milk in with the rest of the milk?
2 days
How long is the dry period for heifers?
60-70 days
When can pregnancy be palpated?
30 days (2 mm)
What % of cows abort?
When do cows have first silent estrus?
14-15 days after calving (goes into heat ~21 days later)
How long do dairy cows live?
6 years (before being culled)
3 parts of Bull BSE?
1. PE
2. Palpate external sex organs
3. Sperm collection
What are the 2 fractions of ejaculate?
1. Clear, no sperm, urine
2. Cloudy, has sperm
How is motility assessed in bulls?
Motile or not (% not used)
How long does it take for sperm to be formed?
40-60 days
What is sensitivity?
How good the test is at detecting those that have the disease
What is specificity?
How good the test is at detecting those that do not have the disease
What's more important: sensitivity or specificity?
Higher specificity
What is the gold standard?
Best test to diagnose a disease
How is sensitivity determined?
# of total true positives divided by # of total (TP + FN)
How is specificity determined?
# FP divided by # (FP + TN)
What is neg. predicted value?
probability that a neg. result is actually a true neg. result
What is pos. predicted value?
probability that an animal that tested pos. actually has the disease
How is pos. predicted value calculated?
TP divided by (TP + FP)
How is neg. predicted value calculated?
TN divided by (TN + FN)